Authors:L. Hřivna, L. Homola, I. Burešová, and P. Smutná
The research was conducted to describe distribution of protein fractions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mill products (semolina, flour and bran) and evaluate the possibility of prediction of protein fractions distribution from values of bread-making quality (protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation volume) evaluated on wholemeal and specific flour. The content of protein fractions was determined by size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography. Significantly highest glutenin content was found in flour (5.01%). The investigated mill products did not differ in gliadin content, the content of albumin/globulin fraction reached the highest values in bran (3.60%). The model of prediction of glutenin and gliadin content in mill products explained 31–62% and 83–92% of the original variability. The protein fractions distribution in wheat mill products could be satisfactorily predicted from known values of protein and gluten content evaluated on wholemeal and Zeleny sedimentation volume evaluated on specific flour.
Authors:J. Mufari, P. Miranda-Villa, A. Bergesse, N. Cervilla, and E. Calandri
Proximate composition and physical parameters in nine quinoa cultivars were determined in order to establish differences among them and to contribute to their characterization. Faro, Pichaman, and Baer varieties cultivars were used. The aim of this research was to evaluate the physical and chemical properties and to characterize the protein fractions. All analysed properties showed significant differences between the cultivars. The physical measurements (weight, shape, size, and density) could be used for improving the technology associated with conditioning, transport, and storage of the grain. The protein content ranged from 15 to 18%, fat 6 to 8%, carbohydrates 70 to 74%, and ash from 3.5 to 4.4%, showing an outstanding nutritional profile. The relative quantity of soluble proteins (albumins and globulins) ranged from 40 to 65%, except in Faro variety cultivar, which presented 16%. The relative percentage of insoluble protein (prolamins and glutelins) ranged from 25 to 34%. The obtained information in this research could be useful in determining seed-quality, automating production, improving cultivation practices and technologies, and developing food products with enhanced nutritional qualities.
Authors:J. Wang, J. Chen, F. Dai, F. Wu, J. Yang, and G. Zhang
The effects of sowing date, nitrogen application level and timing on barley protein components and malt quality were investigated. There was a significant difference in total protein and its protein fractions among the four barley genotypes. The protein component was changeable over the different growing conditions, and the extent of change varied with protein fraction and genotype. Marked variation in malt quality over the different environments (sowing date, N fertilizer rate and applying time) was also observed. Increased N fertilizer application increased diastatic power (DP) value, but reduced malt extract. Grain protein content was significantly and positively correlated with albumin, globulin and hordein, but was not correlated with glutelin. However, glutelin was significantly related to other malt quality parameters.
Authors:Y. Zhao, X.Y. Li, X.Y. Ju, S.H. Zhang, J.C. Tian, and X.J. Yang
Protein and starch are important in wheat quality and yield. To understand the genetic relationship between protein and starch at the quantitative trait locus (QTL)/gene level, 168 doubled haploid (DH) lines were used at three locations over 2 years. The QTLs for proteinfraction contents and starch content were analyzed by unconditional and conditional QTL mapping. We detected 17 unconditional additive QTLs (four albumin QTLs, three globulin QTLs, six gliadin QTLs, four glutenin QTLs) controlling protein-fraction contents. We detected 19 conditional QTLs (five albumin QTLs, three globulin QTLs, five gliadin QTLs, six glutenin QTLs) based on starch content. Of these QTLs, QAlu1B, QGlo6A, QGli1B, QGli7A, QGlu1B and QGlu1D increased the protein-fraction contents independent of the starch content. These QTLs could regulate the usual inverse relationship between protein and starch in wheat seeds. The results could possibly be used in the simultaneous improvement of grain protein and starch content in wheat breeding.
Authors:Gustavo Guadagnucci Fontanari, José Manuel Martins, Marcelo Kobelnik, Iêda Aparecida Pastre, José Alfredo Gomes Arêas, José Paschoal Batistuti, and Fernando Luis Fertonani
higher temperatures than the conventional ones. This second stage corresponds to the thermal decomposition of the proteinfraction. The TG curve was generated in a nitrogen atmosphere, but even so, carbonized matter was produced at the final temperature
Authors:P. Hyršl, Ender Büyükgüzel, and K. Büyükgüzel
The dietary effects of boric acid (BA) on the protein profiles of greater wax moth,
(L.), were investigated in hemolymph and fat body of final instar (VIIth) and pupae. The insects were reared from first-instar larvae on an artificial diets containing 156, 620, 1250 or 2500 ppm of BA. We detected many undetermined protein fractions (6.5–260 kDa) in addition to well-defined protein fractions such as lipophorins and storage proteins in the tissues by using sodium dodecyl-sulphate polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. A marked quantitative change in the 45 kDa protein fraction of the hemolymph was observed in the VIIth instar larvae reared on 2500 ppm dietary BA.