It is well established that the ingestion of cereal prolamins, such as gluten, causes the characteristic symptoms of celiac disease (CD) in people predisposed to it. DNA-based PCR method provides new ways to detect gluten in processed foodstuffs, such as bread. The aim of this work was to adapt a new primer pair combination and to initiate a carefully elaborated PCR methodology to experiment with DNA-based analysis. At first, the purity of cleaned DNA was verified using B49317 and A49855 chloroplast DNA primer pair. Then TR01/2 wheat specific PCR primer pair was used for checking the origin of the DNA, and P1/2 microsatellite (SSR) adapted primer pair for detecting allergen (gluten) specific residues. Method optimisation was achieved with cereal flour samples, then bread and dry pasta products from wheat were used, which were analysed as heat-treated samples with three primer pairs. The gluten specific primer pair was tested on cross-reactive cereals such as rye, barley, triticale and on some questionable cereals, such as oat, and pseudo-cereals, e.g. buck wheat and amaranth.
Authors:ZS. Kiss, B. Vecseri-Hegyes, G. Kun-Farkas, and Á. Hoschke
In the course of our work we aimed to develop a product from gluten-free raw materials (millet, sorghum and buckwheat) that is similar to beer made of barley malt but is consumable by coeliacs. Our measurements were started by qualification of cereal/pseudo-cereal grains. Next malts were made of them with different steeping, germination and kilning parameters, and their most important quality characteristics were determined. Qualification of grains were done by grading, determination of thousand-kernel and hectolitre weight, and protein content, while malts were examined with congress mashing, Hartong mashing and lauter test, as well. Gelatinization point of the starch found in grains and malts were determined by Brabender amyloviscograph which helped to set the temperature of β-amylase rest in future mashings. The gelatinization points were higher in our samples, than in the barley’s starch.Optimization of mashing was continued with malts that fulfilled requirements needed for brewing. Mashing programs were written for each raw material with the help of our laboratory mashing equipment, and resulting worts were analysed (for extract content), then carbohydrate content was measured by HPLC, α-amylase activity by Phadebas test, and free α-amino nitrogen (FAN) content by the ninhydrin method. Those worts were selected for further fermentation tests that had the highest extract and FAN content, best filtration time and appropriate sensory characteristics. Optimal malting temperatures and time periods, aeration and water uptake were determined, and then the duration and temperature of protein and enzyme rests of mashing were set.The malting process that proved to be the most suitable for brewing requirements (high extract content, good lautering characteristics, high FAN content) has the following parameters: steeping with 25 °C water for 18 h with aeration in every 5 h; germination at 15 °C for 84 h; kilning at 50 °C for 48 h.
amino acid profile and high protein content (14–19%) ( Brenner et al., 2000 ). Amaranth, a pseudo-cereal, is a rich source of nutritional compounds, especially proteins such as high-quality lysine, tryptophan, and squalene. Moreover, amaranth is gluten