structure of the public budget (both on the tax and expenditure side) has a significant impact on the volume of GDP. This study works on the basis of this assumption, and aims to quantify the impact of the structure of publicexpenditures on growth of per
A look at the Western debate about West’s problems reveals what the present writer regards in a large measure as an irritating superficiality. Nowhere is it better visible than in the mainstream discussions about the euro zone and its problems, where most debaters glide over the fundamentals of Europe’s long-term problems and concentrate on the superficial and short-term issues. The discussions on how to “save” the euro zone strangely forget the defects in its creation, glide over the lessons to be drawn from policies pursued during the past decade, and defend the virtue of maintaining its present membership. But the problems of Europe run much deeper than the survival or collapse of the monetary union. Even if we assume that the problems of confidence the member states have in each other’s behaviour are restored and the rest of the world regains confidence in the institutions of the monetary union, the fundamental problems will remain unsolved. A clue to the real long-term problems may be found in the answer to a rather simple question. It runs as follows: “Why is the large majority of European countries indebted to such an extent that any further increase in debt to GDP ratio generates panic reactions among potential lenders?”
1 Introduction Extensive literature shows that both the level and composition of publicexpenditures and revenues have implications for economic development. There are two main strands of the literature. The discussion on the short-term impacts of
This paper evaluates the efficiency of Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) in the European Union (EU). The paper first reviews the main trends governing the evolution of the European Social Fund (ESF) since its creation. The ESF promotes public expenditure in ALMPs in order to foster social cohesion across the EU. In order to test to what extent this strategy can be backed up by facts, we estimate the impact of public expenditure on ALMPs on the employment rate using panel data from 28 European countries (1985–2011), taking into account the endogeneity of the explanatory variables and the dynamic behaviour of their relationship. Results support the hypothesis that expenditure in ALMPs is more beneficial for employment than aggregate public expenditure. In addition, we show that periphery countries observe a larger efficiency of their ALMPs. These results support the recent policy strategy undertaken by the European Commission to raise the budget devoted to ESF in Member States experiencing higher unemployment rates.
A tanulmány először a közoktatásban bekövetkezett változásokat veszi számba az
intézmények fenntartói szerkezetének átalakulását, s ennek nyomán az
iskolatípusok közötti arányváltozást és változás személyzeti kihatásait. Kitér a
közoktatás állami kiadásainak alakulására – nemzetközi összehasonlításban is –,
valamint a pedagógus bérrendszer bevezetésének problémáira.
Ezt a felsőoktatásban bekövetkezett változások áttekintése követi: a felsőoktatás
kondícióinak a költségvetési törvények alapján történő elemzése, az állami
támogatások strukturális átalakulásának bemutatása, a finanszírozási módszer
átalakulásának rövid leírása, majd egy nemzetközi összehasonlítás a kondíciók és
a rankingok alapján. Végül az oktatók tudományos teljesítményének és keresetének
nemzetközi összehasonlításával zárul a dolgozat.
Part One of this study summarizes the general view of poverty since the political regime changed, and the practical consequences. The previous regime's denial and hiding of the poverty issue has had several effects. One is that poverty is considered foreign to the system, simply the fallout of economic crisis, and therefore transitional. The belief in its transitional nature has covered up the difference between mass impoverishment and lasting poverty, which always existed, is becoming increasingly serious, and can easily escalate into permanent exclusion. The need to dismantle an overcentralized state is a major reason why the poverty problem has not been understood. Public expenditure can be reduced with little resistance if only those 'who really need it' are assisted. This policy suggests that poverty is 'accidental' and individualized, and that the victims can be blamed. Another, more practical consequence has been the segregating effect of separate institutional poverty management. Institutional reforms have created a huge network of nature of poverty has thus been hidden under the guise of individualization as well as by transferring management to small communities. At the same time, these measures have anchored lines of demarcation between mainstream society and the poor. Part Two of the study focuses on the internal stratification of the poor. The result of impoverishment is that there is now a mass of income-poor people (retirees, low-income families, parents of young children), whose problems are 'only' ones of distribution. Since their bonds to mainstream society have not been fatally injured, their situation could be resolved with money and economic expansion. The other group of the poor is the long-standing, extremely poor. They are in a consolidated state of poverty from which escape is almost impossible. As individuals, people without families, or whose families are in a state of collapse, are in particularly dire situations. Others, who are unskilled and come from less competitive strata and have been driven off the increasingly limited labor market to lock themselves into the underground economy, are in a similarly ominous position. There are also two groups that are collectively poor. It is almost impossible to break out of tiny pockets of isolated settlements and of regions particularly depressed by mass unemployment. The other collective is made up of the victims of the dead-end of forced assimilation, primarily the Roma poor which make up 60-80 per cent of the Gypsy population.