Beierle, T. C. – Cayford, J. (2002): Democracy in practice: publicparticipation in environmental decisions . Resources for the Future, Washington, DC.
Beierle, T. C. – Konisky, D. M. (2000): Values, conflict, and trust in
publicparticipation in the development, adoption and implementation of environmentally significant decisions regarding the objects for destruction of nuclear and chemical weapons : avtoreferat dissertatsii candidata iuridicheskikh nauk. Izhevsk: Udmurt
Poland’s post-communist development is defined by economic and political progress, marred by divisive and unstable politics. An acrimonious political discourse, low levels of public participation, and chaotic politics appear in sharp contrast to a unified, engaged society of pre-1989. The reasons for the path lie in the nature of Poland’s challenge to communism, the ethos of the opposition, and the expression of politics in normative value terms. Since 1989, attempts to appropriate the values of Solidarity as political capital have led to deep political divisions, first expressed in a post-communist divide between the former regime and the opposition, then in a post-Solidarity divide among heirs of the movement. The conflict over the legacy of Solidarity through the appropriation of its normative ethos for partisan politics distorts the values of collective will and social solidarity. The latest discourse pits the vision of “liberal Poland” dedicated to pluralist principles, individual rights and tolerance of differences to the vision of a “solidaristic Poland” dedicated to traditional, Christian and nationalist values. In these agendas, the symbolism of Solidarity serves as political capital to advance distinctive political futures.
Authors:Annik Fet, Ottar Michelsen and Luitzen Boer
Right to Environmental Information and PublicParticipation in Decision-making Processes Relating to the Environment . Oslo.
The European Commission. (2004): Buying Green! A Handbook on Environmental Public Procurement . SEC
PublicParticipation in the Performing Arts: A Review of the Empirical Literature .
, aceessed: 10.05.2008