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in a stage of continuous development and transformation. The appearance of street art can not only make the street space full of artistic atmosphere, but also its development and change cannot be separated from urban public space. Street art plays a

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Reclaiming the streets — Redefining democracy

The politics of the critical mass bicycle movement in Budapest

Hungarian Studies
Author: Éva Udvarhelyi

Culture: The Social Production and Social Construction of Public Space in Costa Rica’, American Ethnologist , Vol. 23, No. 4, 861–879. Low S. M. Spatializing Culture: The Social

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Jelen cikk a lakótelepek térproblémáit a városépítészet szemszögéből foglalja össze: a lakótelepek telepítésének, identitásának, a hely szellemének kérdéseit; a különböző szintű infrastrukturális hiányosságokat; a tulajdonjogi és telekalakítási helyzetet; a közterek állapotát és rendszereivel kapcsolatos problémákat. Az elemzés Rab Judit PhD kutatási munkájának része, amely a budapesti panellakótelepek rehabilitációját, ezen belül elsősorban azok köztereinek, térszerkezetének megújítási lehetőségeit vizsgálja. A kutatás első része a lakótelepek rövid történeti áttekintésével, egy térszervezés-vizsgálatra alapozott tipológia felállításával, valamint a lakótelepek szociológiai, városépítészeti, építési-építészeti szempontok szerinti kritikai elemzésével foglalkozik. A második szakasz a lakótelepeken megtalálható külső terek típusait veszi számba, elemzi ezeket, illetve az ezen elemekből összeálló térrendszert vizsgálja. A harmadik szakasz a lakótelepek megújulási lehetőségeivel foglalkozik, illetve a komplex rehabilitáció kérdésében fogalmaz meg ajánlásokat.

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“poor” built environment. The “poor” design does not refer directly to the buildings, but to the isolated position of the campus or the lack of public spaces. Avoiding a “poor” environment in a city environment is much more complex than Greenfield

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unofficial proper nouns, personal names, other names in public spaces, and extralinguistic (non-verbal) signs referring to names as well. The name semiotic landscape is composed of proper nouns and extralinguistic (non-verbal) signs (such as emblems, photos

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The paper represents the rapidly developing cities in China, namely Shanghai. The metropolis has become a show-case city of the Chinese economy in the last couple of decades. By means of vast investments Shanghai is constantly being renewed and re-edified. The goal of the paper is to present the transformation of the existing conditions, related to public spaces through scientific and empirical elements.

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Abstract

The relationship between water body (fountains) scale and climate parameters like wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity, as well as thermal comfort index was modeled and analyzed via Envi-met code. Taking the water impact and factors analysis as a research object, the factors mainly discussed in this research are square area to water-body area ratio and the location of the water element. However, the computational fluid dynamics simulations were conducted on the following scenarios: 3% (original base case), 6%, and 9% of the total square's area, then the outputs of the two simulation results were compared to the original base case. The results revealed that water scale has a slight effect on the micro-climate of the built environment in the summertime in moderately warm-wet climate zone. However, it is beneficial to adjust temperature and humidity in public spaces of central European cities. Nonetheless, the main aim of this paper is to quantitatively investigate the impact of the water bodies on the urban weather parameters and human thermal comfort under the influence of different scale ratios in Pecs-Hungary.

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that the indicated area has already a public space system, but due to the large potential of traffic and flow, the public spaces need to be thoroughly upgraded and bear the responsibility of bringing up its neighborhood. Fig. 1. Functioning and axis

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The experience of socialism and its legacies in Eastern Europe created a specific context for artists’ engagement with animals and their approach to the natural world. The blueprint for building the socialist utopia had spared little concern for the environmental consequences of breakneck industrialisation, with rivers rerouted, landscapes devastated and nature viewed purely as a material resource. The welfare and interests of animals were far down the list of priorities in a system which valorised the proletariat and demanded sacrifices for the glorification of the socialist state. The cruel fate of the world’s first space traveller, Laika the dog, who was sent on a one-way mission into orbit in 1957, was symbolic of official attitudes towards animals under socialism, as well as providing a focus for feelings of empathy from human subjects that felt equally oppressed.

It was in the 1960s that live animals first entered artistic practice through happenings and performances, which occurred in parallel with the neo-avant-garde exodus from studios and galleries to enter public space and natural environments and was part of the utopian drive to abolish the distinction between art and life. However, it was only after the changes brought by the countercultural orientation of 1968, with the emergence of the women’s liberation movement, a new concern for human rights and the rise of ecological thinking that neo-avant-garde artists began to conceptually address the position of the animal. Birds turned out to be particularly appropriate living metaphors to convey the suppressed desire for freedom, as well as offering a way to explore the ethical and environmental dimensions of relations between the human and the animal.

This paper explores changing attitudes and approaches to animals in East European art of the neo-avant-garde during the Long Sixties through an examination of key works by István Harasztÿ from Hungary, Slovak artist Peter Bartoš and Petr Štembera from the Czech Republic, while considering the impact of new thinking about the natural environment across the porous ideological borders of the Cold War. Engagements with the animal were most frequently conceived in metaphorical terms as a means to talk about the human condition which, due to the specific social, historical and political circumstances of the Eastern Bloc, was particularly true of artists living under socialism.

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