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Schwimmer, S. and Weston, W. J. (1961): Enzymatic development of pyruvic acid in onion as a measure of pungency. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 9, 301. Enzymatic development of pyruvic acid in onion as a measure of pungency

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80 967 984 Saleemi, Z.O. , Janitha, P.K. , Wanasundra, P.D. & Shahidi, F. (1993): Effect of low-pungency ground mustard seed

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. 2009 : Phenolic compounds and temporal perception of bitterness and pungency in extra-virgin olive oils: Changes occurring throughout storage . Food Chem. , 113 , 1095 – 1100

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The Capsicum genus, which originates from the American continent, contains species with a chromosome number of n=12. The plants have white, lilac or purple flowers, and hollow fruit of very varied shape and size, containing glands alongside the veins that produce a pungent alkaloid known as capsaicin. The majority of varieties in the species C. annuum, grown in the largest volume throughout the world and consumed as fresh vegetables or ground spices, are non-pungent. Interspecific crosses are often possible between C. annuum and related, white-flowered species, thus facilitating breeding for resistance against various diseases and pests and the search for new, valuable traits. Species with lilac and purple flowers can be crossed with each other, but direct crosses with white-flowered species are unsuccessful.

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Alteration of physical and chemical qualities of pressurized and heat treated Nam Prig Nhum (Thai-green-chili paste) was thoroughly assessed upon storage for eight weeks. During storage, colour L, –a*, and b* parameters of pressurized Nam Prig Nhum displayed comparatively low changes. The enzyme activities of peroxidase, lipoxygenase, and polyphenol-oxidase nearly fell by half during storage. Peroxidase was the most resistant to pressure followed by lipoxygenase and polyphenol-oxidase. For pungent components, all capsaicinoids in Nam Prig Nhum underwent alteration by the thermal processes as well as by acidic and oxidative degradation during storage. However, higher amount of capsaicinoids were retained in pressurized than in heat treated products.

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Changes of volatile compounds of noni juice during the traditional process of fermentation/aging was studied by means of HS-SPME and GC-MS. Major acids, octanoic and hexanoic, diminished their concentration; while esters of ethanol, 1-butanol and 1-hexanol, with their flavour fruity notes, increased. The concentration of esters of methanol and 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol decreased during the fermentation/aging process, whereas major alcohols of noni juice, 1-hexanol and 1-octanol, increased their concentration during the process. During the 60 days of the process the volatile composition of the noni juice had reached stability. These chemical changes justify that fermented juice possesses a flavour less pungent than fresh juice due to an important decrease in the hexanoic and octanoic contents, as well as a greater fruity note due to the increment in ester concentrations.

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In the case of a widely used spice — Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum — the effect of different drying methods (natural, and by using dryers at temperatures of 30°C, 40 °C, 45°C) was investigated referring to the essential oil amount and composition in the final material. The sensory characteristics of olive oils flavoured by the oregano samples were also determined. The essential oil amount and the area percentage of its main component — carvacrol — were significantly influenced by the different drying temperatures. Compared to the natural way of drying in the case of the essential oil content the drying temperature of 40°C and 45°C was preferable for the higher amounts. Referring to the carvacrol area percentage the drying temperature of 30°C resulted in the highest amounts (89.74±0.28%), that was affirmed by the sensory analysis as well; based on the taste descriptions the consumers found it the most pungent one. According to our results sensory analysis data in most of the cases corresponds to the GC-MS measurements and give a much more complex characterisation of a spice.

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Myocardial infarction is responsible for the majority of cardiovascular mortality and the pathogenesis of myocardial damage during and after the infarction involves reactive oxygen species. Serious efforts are under way to modulate the developing ischemia/reperfusion injury and recently the use of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emerged as a new possibility. H2S has been best known for decades as a pungent toxic gas in contaminated environmental atmosphere, but it has now been recognized as a novel gasotransmitter in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems, similarly to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). This finding prompted the investigation of the potential of H2S as a cardioprotective agent and various in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that H2S may be of value in cytoprotection during the evolution of myocardial infarction. Although several questions remain to be elucidated about the properties of this new gasotransmitter, increased H2S levels may have therapeutic potential in clinical settings in which ischemia/reperfusion injury is encountered. This review article overviews the current understanding of the effects of this exciting molecule in the setting of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion.

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2079 Estrada, B., Pomar, F., Díaz, J., Merino, F. & Bernal, A. (1998): Effects of mineral fertilizer supplementation on fruit development and pungency in "Padrón" peppers. J. hortic. Sci

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Park, K. K., Chun, K. S., Yook, J. I., Surh, Y. J. (1998) Lack of tumor promoting activity of capsaicin, a principal pungent ingredient of red peppers, in mouse skin carcinogens. Anticancer Res. 18 , 4201

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