Summary Refuse derived fuels (RDF) characterization and pyrolysis behaviour, carried out by means of thermogravimetric analysis, infrared and mass spectroscopy, are presented. Thermal degradation of RDF takes place through three main mass loss stages; the analyses of evolved gas allow us to discriminate the contributions of the different fractions (paper, LDPE, wood, rubber, etc.) to the global decomposition. Furthermore thermogravimetry (TG) was used for the determination of kinetic parameters, using the differential method. In order to set up the conditions of production of a good quality pyrolysis gas, the operating conditions of RDF in a pyrolysis reactor have been simulated. Data show that the volatile fraction grows with the temperature, together with the relative conversion, and that light volatile fraction (hydrogen, ethyne, etc.) gets richer, at the expense of superior homologous hydrocarbons.
Petroleum natural gas (PNG) reserves will last even when the oil reserves are exhausted, requiring the development of technologies
for PNG storage. Activated charcoal is the best material for such a purpose. Under vacuum samples of aroeira (Astronium Urundeuva)
underwent pyrolysis in diverse conditions. The samples were characterized by thermal analysis, scanning electronic microscopy
and infrared spectroscopy. When the pyrolysis temperature increased, mechanical anisotropy resistance tended to disappear.
The pyrolysis became complete only at high temperatures and using a long time of treatment.
conversion technology presents a good and viable option for the valorization of several type of lignocellulosic biomass (constituted from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin). As can be seen in Fig. 2 , pyrolysis is considered one of the main common
The pyrolysis of oil shale and plastic wastes is being presently considered as an alternative means of partial substitution
of fossil fuels to generate the necessary energy to supply the increasing energy demand and as well as new technology to reduce
the negative environment of plastic wastes. However, Knowledge of pyrolysis kinetics is of great imponrtance for the design
and simulation of the reactor and in order to establish the optimum process conditions.
In this study, the thermal decomposition of polypropylene, oil shale and their mixture was studied by TG under a nitrogen
atmosphere. Experiments were carried out for various heating rates (2, 10, 20, 50 K min−1) in the temperature range 300–1273 K. The values of the obtained activation energies are 207 kJ mol−1 for polyethylene, 57 kJ mol−1 for the organic matter contained in the oil shale and 174 kJ mol−1 for the mixture. The results indicate that the decomposition of these materials depends on the heating rate, and that polypropylene
acts as catalyst in the degradation of the oil shale in the mixture.
First casein was processed by pyrolysis and investigated under optimal thermal treatment condition to obtain a good quality
adsorbent with high developed porosity structure and liquid product as a complex raw material for different kind of organic
compounds with interesting properties and structures. The yields of hard residue, pitch, pyrolysis water and gases were determined
and compared with the yields of pyrolysis products of other investigated different kind of organic materials.
The chemical composition of pitch was determined as following: free carbons - 4.52%, organic acids - 0.64%, organic bases
-38.00%, phenols - 7.75%, asphaltenes - 0.97%, paraffin's - 1.30%, neutral oils - 16.20% and preasphaltanes - 30.10%. The
pitch was fractionated by air distillation into 3 liquid fractions with different boiling range and a bitumen like residue
with a lower softening temperature.
Slow pyrolysis of walnut shell which is a cheap and abundantly available solid waste was carried out using thermogravimetric
analysis. The effects of raw material heating rate on the pyrolysis properties and kinetic parameters were investigated. A
two-step consecutive reaction model were used to simulate the pyrolysis process. The kinetic parameters were established by
using the pattern search method. Comparison between experimental data and the model prediction indicated that the two-step
consecutive reaction model can better describe the slow pyrolysis of walnut shell as the formation of an intermediate during
the pyrolysis process was taken into account.
is to convert biomass to energy. Thermochemical treatment (pyrolysis, combustion, liquefaction, and gasification) presents several environmental advantages such as the reduction in mass and volume of disposed solids, the reduction in pollutants and