Authors:M. Studnicki, M. Wijata, G. Sobczyński, S. Samborski, and J. Rozbicki
Eleven spring wheat cultivars were compared in terms of the stability of their grain yield and grain quality. The cultivars’ stability was evaluated separately at two different crop management levels – moderate-input management and high-input management. Three stability models were used for the two crop management levels based on a linear mixed model framework with restricted maximum likelihood. The Shukla model was the most appropriate for the evaluation of stability of tested spring wheat cultivars. The thousand-grain weight, starch content, Zeleny sedimentation value and test weight were characterized, and the stability ranking cultivars at moderate-input management level was mostly consistent with the rank of cultivars 24 for high-input management level. For grain yield, grain protein content and wet gluten content, the stability rankings were not consistent. Cultivars ‘Monsun’ and ‘Parabola’ are the most stable cultivars for grain yield in moderate-input management and high-input management, respectively. Cultivar ‘Hewilla’ was the stable cultivar for all quality traits at moderate-input management. Cultivar ‘Arabella’ was the most stable cultivar at high-input management level.
The genotypic response of the growth, yield and quality traits of rice bean [Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi and Ohashi] to NPK enrichment was studied in relation to different fertilizer treatments. The treatments consisted of three NPK levels, namely 0:0:0 (T0) control, 10:30:10 (T1) and 20:60:20 (T2) kg/ha. There were significant differences in plant height 115 days after sowing, days to maturity and tryptophan content (g/16 g N) in various rice bean genotypes with different fertilizer levels. Higher seed yields were recorded for the genotypes JCR-20(S), IC-140796, IC-019352 and JCR-152 as compared to the check variety (BRS-2). The fertilizer treatments significantly affected growth, yield and its contributing traits: plant height, number of pod clusters/plant, seeds/pod, seed yield/plot and total pods picked at maturity. Little variation was observed between the fertilizer treatments for the crude protein (%) and methionine (g/16 g N) contents, but significant variation in the tryptophan content was detected for genotype LRB-40-2. Seed yield and its contributing traits responded positively to the fertilizer treatments. Among the three fertilizer treatments tested in the experiment, the T2 treatment was found to be promising for increasing seed yield. Thus, it can be concluded from the study that the rice bean crop is responsive to fertilizers and that the application of optimal levels of NPK could enhance its productivity.
Authors:A. Anandan, T. Sabesan, R. Eswaran, G. Rajiv, N. Muthalagan, and R. Suresh
Rao, K.S., Murthy, B.T.S., Dash, A.B., Lodh, S.B. 1996. Effect of time of transplanting on grain yield and qualitytraits of basmati types scented rice varieties in coastal Orissa. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science
Authors:L. Amallah, M. Taghouti, K. Rhrib, F. Gaboun, and R. Hassikou
Durum wheat landraces are still cultivated to take advantage of their excellent grain and straw quality, adaptation to abiotic stresses, and extremely wide variety of uses. The safeguarding and rehabilitation of genetic inheritance requires genetic characterization and evaluation. In this study, forty durum wheat landraces originating from Mediterranean countries were evaluated according to agro-morphological and technological properties. We show that the germplasm was highly variable. The mean yellow pigment and protein content was higher in landraces (15.58%; 7.32 ppm) than in the Moroccan cultivars used as controls (14.6%; 5.48 ppm). In addition, principal component analysis identified five groups showing variable agronomic and qualitative characteristics that might be useful in the rational design of breeding programs.
Authors:M. Sabo, M. Sabo, D. Jug, D. Jug, Ž. Ugarčić-Hardi, and Ž. Ugarčić-Hardi
The effect of tillage systems (TS) on wheat quality traits including grain yield, thousand-kernels weight, hectoliter mass, flour extraction rate and flour rheological properties were evaluated. Five different TS were compared in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production on one experimental field (chernosem) located in the Baranya region, north-eastern Croatia from 1998 to 2001. Tillage systems included conventional tillage (CT), disc harrowing, fine till (DHF), soil loosening (SL) + disc harrowing (DH), disc harrowing, coarse till (DHC) and no-tillage (NT). The most stable grain yield was obtained by DHF and CT in all three experimental years. There was no striking regularity with regard to applied TS and hectoliter mass and thousand-kernels weight. The biggest difference of hectoliter mass was determined between CT and NT. TS had significant influence on the flour extraction rate in all three experimental years. The influence of TS on farinographic parameters was significant for all three experimental years for the quality number. Quality number was greater under CT than under other TS. Tillage effect on extensographic and amylographic parameters in the 3-year average did not show statistically significant differences. To sum up, since disc harrowing (DHF) and (DHC) followed by soil loosening with chisel produced equal grain yield and wheat quality parameters were slightly better than conventional tillage, these systems could be presented as an even handed replacement for ploughing.
Authors:T. Dessalegn, M. Labuschagne, and C. Deventer
The bread making quality of Ethiopian cultivars was studied using 18 quality traits at low and high protein environments. Significant variation was observed between genotypes with a broad range of milling, rheological and baking traits. Three different quality prediction models were constructed explaining 48% to 73% of the variation of mixing time and loaf volume, respectively. SDS-sedimentation alone accounted for 56% of the variation in loaf volume at the high protein environment. The variation of mixing time due to protein content alone was 37% at the low protein environment. SDS-sedimentation and mixograph mixing time were common in the three models. SDS-sedimentation, protein content and mixing time can be used as selection criteria in breeding programs where resources are limited. Hectoliter weight and grain weight also contributed to the variation of loaf volume and mixing time.
Authors:E. Stefanis, D. Sgrulletta, S. Pucciarmati, and P. Codianni
Quantitative performance as well as product quality traits among a group of durum wheat cultivars developed and selected in different eras from 1915 to 2003 were examined in an south Italian growing region under organic management. Experiments were conducted over four years. Fertilization treatments included the application of 80 kg organic nitrogen (N) fertilizer and fertilization by only the N residue from leguminous pre-crop. Genetic, agronomic and environmental effects for the investigated traits and significant interactions between factors were found. Application of organic N fertilizer increased grain yield and protein concentration, the mean increase compared to the treatment without applied fertilizer was 14.8% and 12.0%, respectively. Moreover, a significant improvement of gluten quality was observed for higher N availability. Significant cultivar by treatment interactions were observed for all quality traits. Cultivars significantly differed in grain yield and semolina protein content; mean values ranged from 2.54 to 3.50 t/ha and from 10.83 to 11.91% d.m., respectively. Modern cultivars showed the highest values. Although, significant cultivar by environment interactions were detected for agronomic and quality traits, cultivars with a stable high performance in regard to grain yield and semolina protein could have been identified. These results evidenced different adaptability of “old” and “modern” cultivars to organic production and identified only one of the “modern” cultivars as suitable to use organic nutrients in order to achieve high grain yield and quality.