Authors:Bojan Pavlović, Dragana D. Božić, Jovica Milovanović, Ana Jotić, Vojko Djukić, Slobodanka Djukić, Neda Konstantinović, and Ivana Ćirković
and quantify the production of biofilm, the bacterial suspensions of grown S. aureus and M. catarrhalis cultures were prepared in sterile saline and adjusted to the density of 0.5 McFarland standard.
Preliminary screening of strains
chromatography (UPLC) [ 13 ], liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) [ 14 ], and LC–MS/MS [ 15 – 17 ]. Feng et al. developed a UPLC approach for determination of GAL in rat plasma with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 10 ng/mL using liquid
Authors:W. Xiong, R.Q. Yan, Y.N. Liu, S.W. Peng, Z.Z. Jiang, X. Chai, A.D. Qi, and Y.F. Wang
Compound danshen preparations (CDPs) are used clinically for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. By using the quantitative analysis of multi-components by single-marker (QAMS) method, sixteen compounds (danshensu, protocatechuic acid, protocatechuicaldehyde, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid, notoginsenoside R1, salvianolic acid B, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid C, ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rd, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA were quantified on an ACQUITY ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) HSS T3 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.8 μm) with the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A) and acetonitrile (B) using a gradient elution at the flow rate of 0.30 mL/min in 30 min at 30°C, which was also validated by UPLC-diode array detection (DAD) and UPLC-electrospray ionization multistage/mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) for assuring the feasibility and accuracy. Tested by robustness experiment under slightly changeable conditions, the stability of relative correction factor (RCF) proved to be stable, with RSDs below 5.69%, except for notoginsenoside R1 with relative standard deviation (RSD) 7.83%. This reliable and convenient QAMS method resolved the problem of standard substance insufficiency and improved the quality assessment of preparations consisting of complex compounds with different chemical structures, such as CDPs.
Countable words conveying a numeric code and are subject to accountability not quantified explicitly are amenable graduation and become potentially gradable. There are two types of graduation of words: implicitly and explicitly graded words emerging as a result of quantification. The meaning of each lexical unit is implemented in three main areas: graduation, modality, and modal-estimated.