The prohibition of “advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred” by modern international law demonstrates more than any other provision concerning mass media a response effected by the horrors of National Socialism. It is primarily conceived of a special duty by States to take preventive measures to enforce the principle of non-discrimination and the right to life. This provision seems nowadays of special importance all over Europe. After the revolutions in former communist countries in the 1990s the democratic governments and movements are searching for new approaches to guarantee individual freedom, peace and social justice. Freedom of expression plays a decisive role in these conditions. People have eagerly embraced this freedom, so long withheld from them, and are using it to express their democratic aspirations. At the same time, this newly won freedom of expression has being misused to disseminate fascism and racial hatred. In the Balkans terrible crimes against humanity were committed. “Ethnic cleansing” was one of the results of this misuse of the freedom of expression. But also in post WW II democracies-like in Germany-one can find books and papers with racist und neo-fascist propaganda, sometime distributed by international networks. The attempt of the German government to prohibit the right-wing “National Party of Germany” (NPD) shows that the politics try to undertake some action against neo-fascist activities and propaganda. This paper examines the legal basis for international prohibitions against media content advocating war, racism and fascism and shows the ways in which democratic countries have handled (or failed to handle) this thorny issue.
This paper provides an overview of national efforts to combat racism, xenophobia and intolerance in the italian legal framework. It looks specifically at Law n. 94/2009 on public security and its compliance with European and international legal standards. Specifically, the study is devoted to the key issue of the different treatment of Roma and Sinti in Italy due to their legal status.
The kidnapping on February 15, 1999 of the Kurdish leader Abdullah
Öcalan outraged the Kurdish community in Germany, and the Kurdish-Kurdish
conflict was translated onto the streets and schoolyards of a number of major
German cities. The local and national authorities turned to the teachers to
help them in the battle against racism and xenophobia. Several educators, in
turn, had long before anticipated the problem and had written, translated,
published books for the younger generation that address themselves to the
problem of the “Other” generally; several books have also tried to answer the
troubling question: “Where would you find Kurdistan on the map?” For the German
reading public this question had been satisfactorily answered back in 1881 by
the still popular travel writer Karl May. The urgency of the question, however,
has been revived during the last two decades. The authors have written to
inform and to rouse the interest and sympathy of their readers; they have also
contributed to the inter-cultural and -religious dialogue that the German
authorities deemed so necessary.
This paper provides a contemporary perception of stereotypical ideas Czechs have about the Roma culture in the Czech Republic. The location of our research was the Ústí region in northern Bohemia that has the largest Roma population. Moreover, the research presents new faces of stereotypes in naming Roma in the Czech society. We discuss many aspects that provided the highest quantity of significant characteristics on which the ideology of anti-Gypsyism is based.
Authors:V. Rac, Vesna Rakić, S Gajinov, Vera Dondur and Aline Auroux
In this work, room temperature interaction of n-hexane with HZSM-5 (Si/Al=20) and ion-exchanged
samples containing one (CuZSM-5, FeZSM-5 and MnZSM-5) or two transition-metal
cations (Fe,CuZSM-5; Cu,MnZSM-5 and Fe,MnZSM-5) was studied by microcalorimetry
and TPD methods. Both differential heats and the amounts of n-hexane
adsorbed per one unit cell were quantitatively determined. Higher heats of
adsorption and higher amounts of adsorbed gas were found for ion-exchanged
samples than for HZSM-5. The experiments of n-hexane
adsorption on hydrated samples were also performed. The amounts of n-hexane
adsorbed on hydrated ZSM-5 were lower in comparison with dehydrated samples,
while the energies of interaction were similar.
expression of these parameters [ 8–10 ], providing plausibility through which exercise may influence forgetting. Regarding direct effects, the RAC1 pathway is a member of small G proteins that are responsible for influencing the size and shape of synaptic
Authors:Adauto Chiamenti, Cristiano Filho, Marcelo Moura, Fabíola Paula-Lopes, Jairo Neves, Cícero Neto, Paulo Gonçalves, Paulo Lima and Marcos Oliveira
Experiments were carried out to investigate the beneficial effects of retinyl acetate (RAc) and retinoic acid (RA) on goat oocyte maturation as well as the effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), RAc and RA during embryo culture under chemically defined conditions. In Experiment 1, in vitro maturation (IVM) was performed in a chemically defined basic maturation medium (bMM) supplemented with 0.3 μM RAc or 0.5 μM RA. Presumptive zygotes and embryos (2–4 cells) were cultured in droplets of potassium simplex optimised medium (KSOM); however, none of the embryos reached the blastocyst stage. In Experiment 2, oocytes were matured in bMM + RAc or bMM + RA. Presumptive zygotes and 2- to 4-cell embryos were placed in fresh KSOM droplets supplemented with RAc, RA, IGF-I, RAc+IGF-I or RA+IGF-I. In Experiment 1, addition of RAc and RA to bMM increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of 2- to 4-cell embryos reaching the morula stage as compared to the control. In Experiment 2, supplementation of embryo culture media with retinoids and IGF-I increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of 2- to 4-cell stage embryos developing to the morula and blastocyst stage. Our data demonstrate that goat embryo production in chemically defined media could be improved by exogenous RAc or RA and by the interaction between retinoids and IGF-I, and that goat embryos can be produced in vitro from oocytes following protocols similar to those currently used for cattle.
Authors:Juliana C. Z. Conceição, Marcelo T. Moura, José C. Ferreira-Silva, Pamela Ramos-Deus, Priscila G. C. Silva, Ludymila F. Cantanhêde, Ricardo M. Chaves, Paulo F. Lima and Marcos A. L. Oliveira
Exposure of caprine oocytes and embryos to retinoids enhances embryonic development, but the mechanisms governing this phenomenon have not been characterised. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the incidence of apoptosis is affected by the addition of retinyl acetate (RAc) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA) during in vitro maturation (IVM) of caprine oocytes. Embryonic development was recorded on days 3 and 8 post-fertilisation, and apoptosis was measured by caspase activity and DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay). Control zygotes had lower capacity to cleave and reach the blastocyst stage (24.45 ± 2.32 and 5.32 ± 0.81, respectively) than those of RAc- (29.96 ± 1.62 and 7.94 ± 0.93, respectively) and RA-treated groups (30.12 ± 1.51 and 7.36 ± 1.02, respectively). Oocytes and blastocysts positive for TUNEL assay were more frequent, respectively, in the controls (8.20 ± 0.78, 8.70 ± 1.05) than in RAc (5.60 ± 0.52, 4.80 ± 0.51) and RA (6.40 ± 0.69, 5.40 ± 0.69). Caspase activity did not differ between control oocytes (7.20 ± 0.91), RAc (6.60 ± 0.68) and RA (7.30 ± 0.67), but it was reduced in RAc- (5.05 ± 0.62) and RA-treated blastocysts (5.75 ± 0.22) compared to controls (8.35 ± 0.71). These results indicate that the addition of retinoids during IVM increases the developmental potential of goat embryos with a concomitant reduction in apoptosis rates.