Authors:A. Beregi, F. Felkai, V. Molnár, Zs. Szentgáli, and F. Bíró
, S., Pruter, J., Vauk, G. and Visse, C. (1990): Radiological studies of lead shot pellets in tissues of various species of birds found dead in Northern Germany (in German). Zeitschrift für Jagdwissenschaft 36 , 30
Shibata, T., Isoda, H., Hirokawa, Y. és mtsai:
Small hepatocellular carcinoma: is radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization more effective than radiofrequency ablation alone for treatment? Radiology, 2009,
increase in the mean number of authors per article has previously been noted in medical journals (Drenth 1998 ; Mussurakis 1993 ). Mussurakis ( 1993 ) showed a doubling in the number of authors per article in radiology journals between 1966 and 1991
A radiological survey and whole body counting of 137Cs were carried out in Rongelap Island (main island) of Rongelap Atoll in July 1999. The maximum values of 137Cs contamination and of g-ray dose rate were 39 kBq/m2 and 0.033 mSv/h, respectively. The maximum a and b gross counting rates on the surface of ground were 1 cpm and 182 cpm in active area of 72 cm2, respectively. Activity of 239,240Pu for soil was 80 Bq/kg in the top 5 cm and aerial deposition was 3.4 kBq/m2 in Rongelap Island in 1999. The body burden of 137Cs was observed to be 27±11 Bq/kg for 6 workers. Assessment of external and internal annual doses (0.1 and 0.07 mSv/y) indicates that as of 1999 there is no large risk to the inhabitants of Rongelap Island from a radiological point of view. The radiological status of Rongelap Island, which was severely contaminated by the radiological fallouts of nuclear testings carried out in 1954, has improved year by year as shown by the decrease of 137Cs. The effective halftime of 137Cs, which is estimated to be 6.6 y is much shorter than the physical half-life of 137Cs. Radioactive contamination in Kaballe Island, (a part of the northern islands used for farming) which is located 25 km northeast of Rongelap Island, was still high in 1999. One site nearby a beach was highly contaminated with 137Cs, where the maximum activity of 137Cs was 3.4 MBq/m2, a-ray of 2 cpm, b-ray of 1205 cpm and g-ray of 0.73 mSv/h. Activity of 239,240Pu in soil (n = 1) was 294 Bq/kg (top 5 cm) and 16 kBq/m2.
In France, graphite is present as reflector, moderator or structural element in 9 gas cooled reactors which are now in the
decommissioning phase The storage, whose characteristics have to be determined, dedicated to irradiated graphite is planned
in France for 2010. Consequently, the radiological inventory of the graphite has to be done Measurement campaigns already
organized on different graphite samples showed discrepancies for the computed “calculation/measurement” ratio and the necessity
to acquire more experimental results was stressed. The ability to realize an experimental radiological inventory, with particular
attention to 3H, 14C, 36Cl, and 63Ni, was studied. A new mineralization was developed based on an acid attack (iodic + sulfuric acid). This process causes a
high gaseous emission and cannot be applied to analyses of volatile elements such as 14C, 3H, and 36Cl. The routine pyrolysis protocol used to measure these elements in other matrices was specially adapted to the graphite
samples. After these mineralizations, radiochemical steps were conducted in order to separate the different requested radionuclides.
The mean yield of the complete separation process was evaluated for each of them and the detection limits were determined.
Authors:T. Ishikawa, M. Hosoda, A. Sorimachi, S. Tokonami, S. Katoh, and S. Ogashiwa
Nowadays, artificial “radon spa sources” for home baths are commercially available. Although these sources could give a potential
radiation exposure to the users, few studies have been reported on their radiological measurements. In the present study,
five types of radon spa sources were collected and their radiological characterization was investigated. The followings were
estimated for these samples: (1) radon emanation coefficients (dry and water-saturated conditions), (2) surface γ-ray dose
rate, (3) surface count rates for α- and β-rays, (4) activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, and (5) concentrations of radon and thoron generated from the sources located in an air flow system. The activity concentrations
were very high (except for one sample (named “sample B”), although radon emanation coefficient was low compared with soil.
This leads to high concentrations of radon/thoron generated from the sample. The maximum surface γ-ray dose rate was observed
for sample A (2.7 μGy h−1). If people stay very close to the sample for a long time, the exposure might be significant.
Authors:J. Roane, T. DeVol, J. Leyba, and R. Fjeld
For characterizing radioactive samples there are two major considerations in the application of a coupled liquid chromatography
and on-line scintillation counting system: (1) radiological interferences and (2) chemical interferences from the matrix.
A study was conducted to identify which interferences from typical matrices found at several Department of Energy facilities
affected the separation of a radioactive tracer solution by the coupled system. The selection of potential interferent materials
was determined through a review of characterization and monitoring studies of surface water, ground water, and high level
waste tank supermatant at those facilities. Incremental mass loadings of contaminant were mixed with a standardized radioactive
tracer (55Fe,63Ni,90Sr and147Pm) and then injected into a coupled system. The resultant chromatograms were compared to the chromatogram of the standard
radionuclide solution to determine the effects of the chemical or radiological constituent. Relative to the radionuclide solution,137Cs was the only activation/fission product used in this study to effect a radiological interference. For the natural uranium
series, a radiological interference was observed for90Sr due to either a uranium isotope or a decay product of the series. No rad interference was observed from228Th, though it must be noted that the elution program was not capable of completely separating the decay series nuclides of
natural uranium or thorium. For the chemical interferences, the effects are twofold since the chemical can affect the concentration
of ions on the pre-concentration stage as well as the chromatographic separation. The general trend observed was that increasing
the ionic strength of the chemical resulted in decreased retention fractions on the pre-concentration column and significant
shifts in peak elution times.
Authors:A. Miguel-Dasit, L. Martí-Bonmatí, R. Aleixandre, P. Sanfeliu, and J. C. Valderrama
Many abstracts submitted to medical meetings never come to full publication in peer-reviewed journals. From the 2,992 abstracts
presented at the 1994-1998 Spanish Congresses of Radiology, 464 (15%) were published as full articles in journals covered
by the Medline and IME (ndice Mdico Espaol), the Spanish medical database. The publication rate of oral presentations was
higher than that of posters (18% versus 13%). Collaboration between radiologists and clinicians and between radiologists from
different institutions increased full publication (21% and 27%, respectively) compared to abstracts from just one institution
(14%). Therefore, oral presentations, multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional collaboration in the abstract predicted full
Authors:G. Marović, J. Senčar, J. Kovač, and I. Prlić
An assessment of the radiological situation in the area of a coal-fired power plant is made in order to determine their possible impact of a waste landfill located close to the sea and to a rather populated area. The studies carried out over the past decades and repeated radioactivity measurements of slag and ash have shown that the concentration of 238U and 232Th decay series cannot be considered negligible. The aim of this paper was to analyse data collected in the period prior the restoration plan and compare them with the most recent data when in situ restoration measures are in progress.