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Authors: Kata Rohonczy, Linda Zoller, Zsolt Hermann, Andrea Fodor, Balázs Mráz and Veronika Tabajdi-Pintér

Uyttendaele, M., Vanwildemeersch, K., Debevere, J.: Evaluation of real-time PCR vs automated ELISA and a conventional culture method using a semi-solid medium for detection of Salmonella. Lett Appl Microbiol 37

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Salmonella strains by real-time PCR. Int. J. Food Micro. 84 , 217–224. Bhagwat A. A. Simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella strains

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Authors: Levente Lázár, Bálint Nagy, Zoltán Bán, Gyula Richárd Nagy, Artúr Beke and Zoltán Papp

Zhong, X. Y., Holzgreve, W., Hahn, S.: Risk free simultaneous prenatal identification of fetal Rhesus D status and sex by multiplex real-time PCR using cell free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. Swiss. Med. Wkly, 2001, 131 , 70

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. , Frey , J. , Abril , C. : Novel identification and differentiation of Brucella melitensis B. abortus, B. suis, B. ovis, B. canis , and B. neotomae suitable for both conventional and real-time PCR systems . J Microbiol Methods 75 , 375 – 378

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Authors: O. Erdősi, K. Szakmár, O. Reichart, Zs. Szili, N. László, Z. Balogh, P. Székely Körmöczy and P. Laczay

Garrido, A., Chapela, M., Román, B., Fajardo, P., Lago, J. & Vieites, J.M. (2013): A new multiplex real-time PCR developed method for Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes detection in food and environment samples. Fd Control, 31 , 76

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Authors: Somayeh Fard, Bizhan Nomanpour, Bahram Fatolahzadeh, Ashraf Mobarez, Davood Darban-Sarokhalil, Abbas Fooladi, Willem Leeuwen and Mohammad Feizabadi

Wilson, D. A., Yen-Lieberman, B., Reischl, U., Gordon, S. M., Procop, G. W.: Detection of Legionella pneumophila by real-time PCR for the mip gene. J Clin Microbiol 41 , 3327–3330 (2003). Procop G. W

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Authors: Ádám Bálint, Miklós Tenk, Zoltán Deim, Thomas Rasmussen, Åse Uttenthal, Attila Cságola, Tamás Tuboly, Attila Farsang, Caroline Fossum, Sirje Timmusk, Mikael Berg and Sándor Belák

): Quantitation of porcine circovirus type 2 isolated from serum/plasma and tissue samples of healthy pigs and pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome using TaqMan-based real-time PCR. J. Virol. Methods 122 , 171

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Authors: Orsolya Erdősi, Katalin Szakmár, Olivér Reichart, Zsuzsanna Szili, Noémi László, Péter Székely Körmöczy and Péter Laczay

55 Garrido, A., Chapela, M., Román, B., Fajardo, P., Lago, J. and Vieites, J. M. (2013): A new multiplex real-time PCR developed method for Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes

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Authors: Reza Ranjbar, Ali Naghoni, Shohreh Farshad, Hadi Lashini, Ali Najafi, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard and Caterina Mammina

beacon — real-time PCR technology to detect Salmonella species contaminating fruits and vegetables. Int J Food Microbiol 95 , 177–187 (2004). Bhagwat A.A. Application of a molecular

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The goal of this study was to improve the diagnostic applicability of genus- and serovar- (S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium) specific PCR systems in screening faecal and caecal samples of poultry, poultry feed and poultrymeat for Salmonella, by keeping the opportunity to obtain Salmonella cultures from positive samples. Peptone broth pre-enrichment cultures of the samples were tested by PCR. In faecal and caecal samples from broiler chicks a strong inhibitory action was frequently observed. This could be reduced markedly by the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) acting as amplification facilitator. The results of testing pre-enrichment cultures from artificially contaminated faecal, poultry feed and poultrymeat samples (using S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Hadar as contaminants) suggest that the sensitivity of the above systems is 101-102 CFU g-1 sample. The testing of 95 caecal samples from slaughtered chicks resulted in 49% culture-positive and 76% PCR-positive samples. The suitability of a generic real-time PCR for testing faecal samples of poultry was also studied. Its detection limit for these samples was found to be lower than that of the diagnostic PCR system. Both methods reduced the time required for Salmonella detection to 24-30 h, and the advantage of the real-time PCR was its increased sensitivity. We have established a diagnostic and a real-time PCR system for rapid and reliable genus- and serovar- (S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium) specific detection of Salmonella for monitoring purposes in the poultry food chain. Sensitivity is equal to, or higher than, that of the standard bacterial culture method, and the method still provides the Salmonella culture if needed.

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