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Abstract  

Thermal stability and phase structure of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) based on post-consumer materials such as recycled lowor high-density polyethylene and ground tyre rubber (GTR) were investigated by using TG, DSC and DMTA analysis. Preliminary reclamation of GTR leads to enhancement of compatibility between polyethylene matrix and dispersed GTR particles.

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Abstract  

In order to investigate the transition of tidelands, we collected sediments in Yatsu tideland and Nekozane river mouth in Tokyo Bay. The vertical distributions of elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and prompt gamma-ray analysis. In Yatsu tideland the vertical distribution changed in a great extent, which was considered as an influence of the neighboring reclamation. They were categorized into four groups, and two parameters were created by applying principal component analysis. Chemical states of iron and sulfur were also investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure. These results show that Yatsu tideland became an anaerobic environment.

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A pilot plant was developed for the reclamation and reuse of secondary effluent from a sewage treatment plant. The plant system consists of sand filtration, gamma-irradiation, ozonation and ion-exchange. Gamma-irradiation showed effective organic contaminant decomposition and this resulted in the reduction of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), color, chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) and total organic carbon (TOC). Ion-exchange significantly removed inorganic ions, and thus reduced total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). The average reduction in color, CODCr, BOD5, TOC, TN and TP, which was obtained after 12 operations, was 64, 52, 67, 61, 95 and 92%, respectively. Irrespective of applied radiation dose, the treated water fully satisfied the quality requirements of household water that can be used for all home uses except for drinking and human contact uses.

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The objectives of the study were to determine the extent of nitrate leaching and maize yields in four drainpipe spacing variants (15 m, 20 m, 25 m and 30 m). The study was carried out at an experimental reclamation field during a period of five years (growing seasons). Maize was grown as the trial crop and the same agricultural practices were applied in all drainpipe spacing variants in all trial years. Nitrogen fertilization rates varied in different trial years (from 145 kg/ha/year to 175 kg/ha/year). The results indicate that nitrate concentrations in drainage water exceeded the allowable values in a larger part of the year (four to seven months) in all drainpipe spacing variants and maximum values were from 18.15 mg.dm−3 (drainpipe spacing of 15 m in 1999/00) up to 34.71 mg.dm−3 (drainpipe spacing of 25 m in 2002/03). Quantity of nitrogen leached differed from year to year and corresponded to the total nitrogen added with fertilization and annual precipitation. Statistically significant higher maize yields were achieved in most years with the drainpipe spacing of 15 m compared to other drainpipe spacing variants.

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Abstract

The writing of art history entails a constant negotiation of the past, including the past of art's own narratives. Organizers of the recent CIHA conference “How to write art history – national, regional or global?” have called into question the epistemological effects of art history's traditional geographical divisions, most particularly its emphasis on the nation state. There are compelling reasons for this challenge. In formerly colonial nations, for example, the arbitrary division of territory amongst colonizing nation states created unities that are as untenable aesthetically as they have proven to be ethnically and geographically. Yet the past cannot simply be supplanted. The historical marginalization of art made within formerly colonial nations has produced an ongoing need for reclamation, restitution, and recognition. This paper draws on the example of historical art made by women in Canada in order to examine both the limitations and the continued potential of nation-based art histories. This focus on women's art production is not tangential to questions of nationhood, for in addressing issues of geopolitical reterritorialization, art history encounters broader challenges pertaining to the role of identity in redressing power imbalances.

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There are millions of acres of chemically contaminated lands on which biofuel crops can be planted for dual purposes of biomass production and land reclamation. Phytoremediation is a proven technology for environmental cleanup, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical environments. There are advantages in that multiple growing seasons and increased soil temperature accelerate the clean-up processes. Seeds of 13 tropical and temperate plant species were germinated and grown for 10 days in petroleum contaminated soil containing 3148 μg/g of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that the presence of PAHs enhanced both emergence and early seedling growth with some of the species tested. Kiawe tree germination rate was 7-fold higher in PAH soils than that in the control media. The potential biofuel grasses sugarcane, banagrass, switch grass, vetiver and miscanthus showed degradation of PAHs in at least one of the amended PAH-contaminated soils in 35 days of growth. Banagrass biomass production in all the treatments was far greater than the other four species. No plant control pots were most effective to reduce PAHs in the un-amended PAH soil. Vetiver degraded all PAHs when planted in the PAH soil amended with 1/3 of the Promix soil (a 2/3 PAH soil volume). Among five biofuel crops tested, banagrass produced a tripled amount or more of biomass than all the other species in the LF-14 un-amended PAH soil or its amended soils. The dry weight (dw) biomass of banagrass averaged ∼3 g/day/3-L pot in all PAH soils and 6 g/day/3-L pot in Promix as harvested at the ground level. Banagrass in 90-cm spacing could produce approximately 30 tons/ha/yr of dry matter in a 70-day crop season. The results warrant further investigation of biofuel crops for phytoremediation and biomass production purposes. Future plantings may be considered using these and other crops in combination with applicable contaminants to help clean up the contaminated environment and reduce petroleum dependency.

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., 2002. Effects of brown coal application on heavy metal uptake by plants. Agrokémia és Talajtan. 51. 211–218. Vangronosveld , J. & Tichelen , V., 1996. Reclamation of bare industrial area contaminated by

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developing shower/laundry wastewater reclamation and reuse system Chemosphere 52 1451 – 1459 . [7]. D. A. Okun

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30. 139 147 Szabolcs I. (ed.) (1971): European Solonetz Soils and their Reclamation. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest

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Szegi J. (1979): Talajmikrobiológiai vizsgálati módszerek. Mg. Kiadó. Bp. p. 234–258. Tate, R. L., Klein, D.A. (1985): Soil Reclamation Processes. Microbiological Analyses and Applications. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New

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