In the research a prototype to record the activity of ensembles of
single neurons from the brains of freely moving rats has been developed. The
DT4 prototype has 16 inputs, weighs 10 g and is powered for over 4 hours by an
18 g battery. The DT4 digitizes signals at 24-bit resolution, allowing signals
as small as 10 mV to be resolved.
Each input is initially low-pass filtered (5,5 kHz) and digitized (12 kHz). The
digital signals are combined into a single data stream and the serialized data
are then transmitted to a remote DSP-based recording system via either an
optical fiber or 2.4 GHz radio channel.
various ways and are used for a better understanding of cochlear physiology. We studied the modification of SOAE recordings in the presence of contralateral pure-tone stimulation in humans. Interactions with pure-tones in the ipsilateral ear or
Authors:Z. Zimek, J. Zabłotny, R. Krawczyński, and W. Frankowski
The instrumentation for digital recording of transient signals was built and incorporated into a system for pulse radiolysis experiments. A single analog signal which is displayed on the screen of the oscilloscope is captured by a TV-camera in the measuring set up. The camera is connected to a Camac crate which is directly linked to a microcomputer. The analog signal can be digitized and memorized in 128×256 matrix points.
To this day, Joseph Haydn’s symphonies are often performed and recorded in a way that does not meet the composer’s intentions. This concerns certain variants of instrumentation, e.g. the rendering of violoncello obbligato with a single instrument, the use of trumpets and timpani or of horns in high C, respectively. Using the violoncello part of the slow movement of symphony Hob. I:102 as example, it is argued that Haydn in spite of the “solo” mark at the beginning of the movement did not intend the part to be played by one instrument alone. The same applies to most of the passages for violoncello “solo” in his late symphonies. Additionally, it can be established from the sources that before 1768 Haydn did not write for horns in high C and that the parts for trumpets and timpani in some of the early symphonies do not originate with the composer. That these alternatives of instrumentation, though not authentic, have found widespread acceptance in today’s performances is demonstrated by selected recordings from the 1950s to date. A short survey of the history of Haydn’s symphonies on record serves as an introduction to this essay.
A new method of quasi-continuous videodensitometric recording of circular thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is proposed. It is based on separation by planar chromatography and simultaneous quasicontinuous videodensitometric recording of the chromatograms on the plate as the chromatograms are developing in real time. This new approach to recording of separation results enables one to expand and simplify substantially the practical application of data on the separation of samples being studied during the entire chromatographic process. It is important to note that the chromatograms are recorded on a plate wetted with the liquid phase (i.e., on a ‘wet’ TLC plate) in the separation process. Use of this new version of TLC enables considerable reduction of the duration of analysis. It should be noted that in this paper we consider not only the traditional circular TLC, but new methods of circular TLC — corner and lateral TLC. Quasi-continuous recording of the separation results can also be used for the detection of compounds in UV light.
Bartók's “Continental” 1942 recording of Improvisations op. 20 provides us with invaluable insights into his aesthetics and nature. This is a special case study in which Bartók redesign the composition through his performance. In this rendition the simple structure of most of the eight pieces that construct the composition (alternations between arrangements of the Hungarian peasant songs and transitions section in between them), turn into temperamental micro-drama of associations, flowing without any hesitations from Bartók's mind to his fingers. The folk song arrangements are played in various performing styles, related directly to the written texture, while the transition sections played in more personal style. Here, in these transitional sections, Bartók the romantic, emotional pianist is revealed. These transitions are used by him as improvisatory pauses, used mainly for musical reflections dealing with his performance style of the preceded folk song arrangement or the one that follows. The current article introduces and examines some of the insights evoked by Bartók's recording of this composition.
The paper summarises the lessons and conclusions of a large study of over 100 recordings of Johann Sebastian Bach’s Passions, Brandenburg Concertos and Goldberg Variations issued between around 1945–1976. In the first part it gives an overview of the state of performance practice scholarship in the first three quarters of the 20th century. In the second part it deals with the role of instruments, vocal practices, tempo, ornamentation, rhythm and articulation in creating the style of a performance. It argues that articulation stemming from early instrumental technique and based on the metric organisation of rhythm is the key element of a historically oriented style. This, however, has not been fully recognised during the period. Among scholars only Sol Babitz discussed it at length prior to the mid-1980s while on record it appeared sporadically from late 1960s onwards, but almost exclusively in the performances of Leonhardt and Harnoncourt. 7 figures, musical examples, summary list of recordings referred to in the text.
Authors:Sz. Takács, Andrea Szabó, G. Oszlánczi, P. Pusztai, A. Sápi, Z. Kónya, and A. Papp
Male Wistar rats wearing chronically implanted cortical electrodes were exposed to Mn-containing nanoparticles via the airways for 8 weeks following a 2-week pre-exposure period. The rats’ cortical electrical activity and open field motility was recorded simultaneously, in weekly repetitions. It was supposed that this technique can provide better insight in the development of Mn-induced CNS damage. Decreased motility (less distance covered, longer periods of immobility) and increased total power of cortical electrical activity developed in parallel in the first 4–5 weeks of treatment but showed little change afterwards. Both the behavioral and the electrophysiological effect were in fair correlation with the rats’ internal Mn exposure determined from brain samples. The results confirmed the non-linear dose- and time-dependence of Mn effects suggested by previous studies. Repeated simultaneous behavioral and electrophysiological recording during a longer treatment with neurotoxic metals (or other xenobiotics) seems to be a promising method.
Authors:Károly Vörös, Ingo Nolte, Stephan Hungerbühler, Jenő Reiczigel, Jan Ehlers, Guy Tater, Reinhard Mischke, Tanja Zimmering, and Matthias Schneider
The goals of this study were to present a technique of digitalised sound recordings and phonocardiograms (dPCGs), and to analyse its diagnostic capabilities. Heart sounds of 20 dogs were auscultated in vivo (on-line) and recorded with dPCGs by two authors using a Welch Allyn Meditron Stethoscope System. Sound recordings were auscultated off-line and blindly by four different observers having various auscultatory experiences, then listened to while viewing dPCGs. The results were compared to echocardiographic diagnoses. There was a significant agreement (p < 0.001) between on-line and off-line auscultatory findings regarding the four observers, ranging from 45% to 75% (weighted kappa values: 0.72 to 0.87). The best agreement was achieved by Observer 1 having the highest experience. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between Observer 1 and Observer 4 (with the lowest experience) in judging the quality of the murmurs during the off-line and blind auscultation. However, there were only minimal differences (95% to 100% agreements) in dPCG analyses among the four observers regarding intensity and quality of the murmurs while simultaneously listening to and viewing the dPCGs. Significant correlations were found between the traditional ‘0 to 6 scale’ and a new ‘0 to 3 scale’ murmur intensity gradings by all observers (correlation coefficients 0.640 to 0.908; p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). Analysis of dPCGs might be a valuable, additional tool helping with the diagnosis of canine cardiac murmurs, especially for those with less cardiological experience.
Authors:F. Szalay, W. Back, A. Barneveld, and et al.
A VHS video - computer-based image analysis combination is described as a low sampling rate motion analysis system. Video recordings were taken indoor without any artificial illumination at 25 fps sampling rate. The horse studied was running on a high-speed treadmill and observed at 1.6, 4 and 7 m/s velocities at walk, trot and canter, respectively. Left forelimb and hindlimb were recorded separately from lateral view. For comparison, parallel CODA-3 recordings were taken at the same time from the same position. Joint angles were expressed and compared in angle-time diagrams. Sampling of both systems has been synchronised by a timer device at ± 1/300 s error level. Results obtained with the two different recording systems were comparable in all joints measured with the exception of the fetlock. Inaccuracies in fetlock recordings are thought to be eliminated by measuring at controlled illumination. As a conclusion, the VHS-Macintosh setup appears to be promising as a simplified system for gait analysis.