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Pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes become increasingly important in the agroindustry due to their bioavailable compounds that have the ability to inhibit the formation and/or to reduce the effective concentration of reactive cell-damaging free radicals. This study aimed at determining the concentrations of free, and bound phytochemicals and their antioxidant potential (DPPH and ABTS assays) as well as the vitamin E and carotenoids contents of non-pigmented and pigmented rice genotypes. The results confirmed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids contents, as well as the antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS assays) of pigmented rice was several-fold greater than non-pigmented ones (4, 4, 3 and 5 times, respectively). Compounds in the free fraction of pigmented rice had higher antioxidant capacity relative to those in the bound form, whereas the non-pigmented rice cultivars exhibited the opposite trend. Ferulic acid was the main phenolic acid of all rice genotypes, whereas black rice contained protocatechuic and vanillic acids in higher contents than red rice and non-pigmented rice genotypes. For vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene) contents, no obvious concentration differences were observed between non-pigmented and pigmented rice, with the black rice exhibiting the highest carotenoid content. Overall, pigmented rice genotypes contain a remarkable amount of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant capacity; therefore, they have great potential as a source of bioactives for developing functional food products with improved health benefits.

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time. This study aims to determine the optimal conditions to achieve both the highest percentage of germination and GABA content in a crossbred variety of red rice, UKMRC-9, that was developed by University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and the Malaysian

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22 174 183 Itani, T. & Ogawa, M. (2004): History and recent trends of red rice in Japan. Jap. J. Crop Sci. , 73 , 137

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. Hu , Z. , Tang , X. , Liu , J. , Zhu , Z. & Saho , Y. ( 2017 ): Effect of parboiling on phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of germinated red rice . Food Chem. , 214 , 285 – 292

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, N.W. , Lin , Y.L. , Lee , M.H. & Ho , C.Y. ( 2005 ): Ankaflavin from Monascus -fermented red rice exhibits selective cytotoxic effect and induces cell death on Hep G2 cells . J. Agr. Food Chem. , 53 , 1949 – 1954

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: M.Z. Islam, M.A. Siddique, N. Akter, M.F.R.K. Prince, M.R. Islam, M. Anisuzzaman, and M.A.K. Mian

.F.R.K. , Siddique , M.A. , Rashid , E.S.M.H. , Ahmed , M.S.U. , Pittendrigh , B.R. , Ali , M.P. , Islam et al. 2018 a. Diversity and population structure of red rice germplasm in Bangladesh . PLoS ONE . 5 : e0196096

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20194. Cardinali et al. (2021) tested a pool of 23 lactic acid bacteria strains for the fermentation of three ad hoc formulated cereal (red rice and barley) and pseudocereal (buckwheat) -based substrates. Eight strains with the best performance in

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