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15 39 Bommier, A. — Leroux, M. L. — Lozachmeur, J. M. (2007): Uncertain Lifetime, Redistribution and Nonlinear Pricing of Annuities . CESifo Area Conference, April 20

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. (1994): The End of Redistribution? International Pressures and Domestic Policy Choices. Challenge. 37. Nov./Dec., 9217. Sutton, M. – Gravelle, H. – Morris, S. – Leyland, A. – Windmeijer, F. – Dibben, C. – Muirhead, M

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Richter, Sándor (2005): Scenarios for the Financial Redistribution across Member States in the European Union in 2007-2013. Vienna: WIIW Research Report, No. 317, April. Scenarios for the Financial Redistribution

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retrogradation, water migration and redistribution between crumb and crust and between starch and gluten) where molecular interactions occur at multiple temporal and spatial scales [ 2 – 4 ]. Mechanisms of bread staling are not yet completely understood and not

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The EU budget review, launched by the Commission in 2007, is a unique opportunity to critically examine EU policies and instruments. Structural Funds are at the heart of the EU’s cohesion efforts, and amount to almost one-third of the Community’s budget. They have two declared objectives, economic growth and regional convergence, but these do not always complement each other. The allocation of the Structural Funds is not efficient from a pure growth standpoint, and a large proportion of transfers takes place within regions. With enlargement, cross-country transfers increased significantly to 40% of total flows, and intra-regional redistribution decreased. In a more diverse EU, this is a step to the right direction. Yet, almost three-quarters of intra-country redistribution still happens within regions.

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Abstract  

This article introduced two sampling methods, including Directly Random Sampling (DRS) and Redistributed Random Sampling (RRS) methods for categorization of a large number of research articles retrieved from metallurgy and polymer subfields from the Science Citation Index (SCI) database. The accuracy of the proposed sampling methods was considered in association by comparing with reference results previously obtained by Fully Retrieving Sampling (FRS) method, which involved analyzing the contents and categories of all articles from the database. The results suggested that RRS and DRS methods were appropriate, efficient and reasonably accurate for categorization of relatively large volume of research articles. RRS method was highly recommended, especially when the contents of sample articles was unevenly distributed. By DRS and RRS methods, only about 6.3% of total articles were required for obtaining similar results as those given by FRS method. The percentage Expected Worst Errors (EWE) from DRS and RRS methods were observed to range from 1.0 to 5.5%. The EWE value could be reduced by increasing the sample size.

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The study summarises the overall economic model of Hungarian economist Tibor Liska (1925–1994). The economic system of the model would be transcapitalistic inasmuch as being more self-regulating, through a “pure” market and unlimited competition, than capitalism as we know it. In this model, property is fully open to competition as gaining control over property in open competition is regarded as a fundamental human right. The model allows the state to have only regulatory functions, accordingly, a drastic reduction of the role of the public sector is needed. The self-controlled economy would also manage redistribution, education, environmental problems and all other socio-economic subsystems much more efficiently than present-day economies. The theory envisions a society without taxation, where all income is fully personal and all property (that is, means of production) is social but is in personal stewardship. The study outlines two subsystems of the model: those of social inheritance and personal social ownership. Finally it touches upon an attempt of putting the model into practice.

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A tanulmány az Európai Unió tagállamainak világgazdasági felzárkózásával foglalkozik. Elemzi a tagállamok, a térségek, és ezen belül kiemelten a kelet-közép-európai térség fejlődését, különös figyelemmel a magyar felzárkózási folyamat alakulására. A Lisszaboni Programban meghirdetett célok „teljesítménytáblázatának”elemzése után a szerzõ rátér az egy főre esőGDP és a bruttó hazai termék szerkezetének elemzésére, majd a transznacionális társaságok szerepének kiemelését követően a tőkeáramlások alakulását vizsgálja. A cikk különbözőkonvergenciajelentések értékelésével zárul, amelyek nyomán a szerzőmegfogalmazza a KKE-régió és benne Magyarország felzárkózásának kulcskérdéseit és esélyeit.

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increases the real burden of debt and, consequently, leads to a redistribution from debtors to creditors. This has an important effect as historically the biggest debtor in an economy is always the state. 12 The real burden of government debt is higher than

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be migration of moisture. Softening of the crust and hardening of the crumb are related to moisture redistribution (crumb-to-crust migration) during storage [ 3 , 8 , 9 ]. The role of antistaling additives may be to function as plasticizers

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