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Abstract  

The reaction calorimeter CAP202 (chemical process analyzer) determines thermal effects by measuring the true heat flow (THF) based on unique design principles. In particular, measurements can be performed without requiring any calibration procedures and the obtained results are most reliable and exhibit extremely stable baselines. The benefits in respect of experimental speed, data quality and long term performance are obvious. Due its broad dynamic range the instrument can be employed for measurements ranging from small physical heat to energetic chemical reactions. The CPA allows running experiments seamlessly with reaction volumes between 10 and 180 mL. This volume flexibility simplifies the investigation of multi-step operations and is the basis for various applications employing precious or highly energetic compounds. Due to the fact that calibrations are not required, altering conditions during a single experiment like changes in viscosities, liquid levels or stirring speeds do not affect the results of the measurements.

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with mechanical stirrer and reflux condenser at the temperature between 190 and 250 °C. Reaction time was 33/80 min depending on glycolysis agent. Two phases were obtained. The weight ratio of upper/lower glycolysate phase ranged from 90:10 to 70

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, China) with a scanning scope of 400–4000 cm −1 . Catalytic activity experiment The catalytic reaction was carried out in a three-necked flask equipped with thermometer, stirrer and reflux condenser. In a typical

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stirrer, reflux condenser, thermometer and nitrogen inlet. The sodium metal was dissolved under reflux in the presence of catalytic amount of FeCl 3 (which took approximately 2 h), and 4-morpholine-1-yl-benzonitrile (69 g, 0.37 mol) was added. After that

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of B 9 O 14 T′ 6 D 124 D 31 vi M 17 (B 9 T 6 ) To one-necked round bottom flask with a volume 250 ml, equipped with a reflux condenser and a drying tube filled with anhydrous CaCl 2 , was added 3.34 g (0.054 mol) of boric acid (p.a.), 90

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6 was taken as follows: a 100 mL four-necked flask, equipped with polytetrafluoroethylene stirrer, nitrogen inlet, thermometer, and reflux condenser, respectively, was charged with 5 mmol (0.730 g) adipic acid, 5 mmol (1.125 g) aromatic diamine, 13

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Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis
Authors: Min Chen, Yin-Yin Wu, Ying Luo, Min-Qiang He, Ji-Min Xie, Hua-Ming Li, and Xin-Hua Yuan

%) and dichloromethane (5 mL) was put into a 100 mL three-neck flask, which placed in water bath, equipped with a stirrer, a reflux condenser with a drying pipe and a thermometer. Then an appropriate amount of the mixture of acetyl chloride (3 mmol) and

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BET method Apparatus and experimental procedure The kinetic experiments were conducted in a 500 ml round-bottom three-neck glass flask equipped with a reflux condenser and a stir

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amounts of metal acetates (Ac), i.e., Cu(Ac) 2 ·H 2 O (2.7951 g) and Zn(Ac) 2 ·2H 2 O, (5.7064 g), was placed in a three-necked flask (500 mL) equipped with a reflux condenser and a thermometer. Then, the mixture was heated to 198 °C within 30 min under

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magnetic stirring bar, and a reflux condenser. The oxidation was carried out in following procedure: catalyst (0.015 mmol), ethyl acetate (3 mL), substrate (1 mmol), and H 2 O 2 (1–2 mmol, 30% aq.) were charged in the reaction flask. The reaction was

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