This essay tries to place the SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organization) within the context of China's experiences with Central Asia. I argue that while this emphasis on Central Asia is new, we see, too, that the SCO's attempt to project Central Asia as an area of prime concern in global politics reveals China's historic obsession with this “near other”. I trace this obsession with Central Asia to Chinese foreign policy from the Song through the Yuan (Mongol) and Ming periods. In its history, China has always played off its northern border -symbolised by the Great Wall - against the maritime border which is, by its very nature, fluid and expansive. The SCO actually reveals once again China's fear perception of its northern border. History and memory cast long shadows, even in strategic studies which deny long-term trends in history. How long before China starts a similar exercise for the Indian Ocean, an exercise for which Shanghai has a locational advantage?
Authors:Isabel Gómez, María Teresa Fernández, and Jesús Sebastián
International scientific cooperation of Latin American countries amongst themselves, with the USA and with the European Union
in the period 1991–1995 was studied. The analysis deepens in the differences per subject area and the influence of the regional
axis involved. Collaboration patterns differ according to the scientific size of the latin American countries, the thematic
areas and whether a bilateral collaboration or a participation in a multilateral network takes place. Some special characteristics
of multi-regional cooperation networks are presented.
Inter-regionalism refers to regular forms of cooperation between regions or actors from different regions and is a result of the parallel phenomena of globalization and regionalism. Inter-regional links are rapidly developing all around the world and form a new level of global governance. Though originally inter-regionalism typically connected the actors of the so-called Triad, today emerging economies and developing regions are more active and visible participants of inter-regional cooperation. The article examines the perspectives and limitations of inter-regional relations between China and Latin America as a new dimension of deepening Sino—Latin American relations.
of RegionalCooperation? The Limits of Regional Institutionalization in East Asia. In: M. Telo (ed.) (2007) European Union and New Regionalism. Regional Actors and Global Governance in a Post-Hegemonic Era . Ashgate Publishing Limited, Aldershot
Gultekin , Burcu 2005: Prospects For RegionalCooperation on NATO’s South Eastern Border. Developing a Turkish-Russian Cooperation in South Caucasus. Final Report for Manfred Wörner Foundation. Available online at:
Authors:Andrea Suranyi, Miklos Nogrady, Abel Altorjay, Tibor Nyari, and Gabor Nemeth
authors would like to thank Cedars Sinai Medical Center’s International Research and Innovation in Medicine Program, the Association for RegionalCooperation in the Fields of Health, Science and Technology (RECOOP HST Association) for their support of our