Authors:L. Barkaszi, A. Arutyunjan and K. Takács-György
It has been proved that because of the different past of the parcels regarding their soil, agronomical and technological parameters, weed sampling results may not be generalised. Therefore it is necessary to study those solutions how to determine on an acceptable confidence level a parcel’s weed infestation with optimised sampling techniques.For studying the question we have delimited on wheat stubble a total sample area of 36×54 metres (using it as reference) and divided it into 2×2 cells giving a total of 486 sample cells. Then we surveyed the weed infestation and GPS recorded the location of each cell.We have analysed the weed infestation data with mathematical and statistical methods comparing the results of cells with each other and with the total sample area. We found that in several cases of different sample cells weed infestation displayed a diverse picture. This way sampling of weeds is extremely difficult.We found close relation between relative frequency of weeds and sampling accuracy. Therefore sampling is reliable only for surveying the frequent weeds in a parcel, while more rarely found weeds (e.g. spots of perennials) are to be scouted only by means of going over the parcel and GPS recording them. Otherwise, in the case of a traditional sampling process, the number of sampling cells required for acceptable reliability is unnecessarily high.Consequently, it is necessary to further study the economic and cost efficiency aspects of the needed weed sample density from the point of view of reasonable sample density, accuracy and optimal yield.
In invisible colleges the relative frequency of coauthorships is higher between scientists with the same number of publications than between authors of different ones. The opposite is valid in institutionalized communities.
Sixty Mesa Verde variety Black-on-white bowls from Castle Rock Pueblo (5MT1825) and Sand Canyon Pueblo (5MT765) in southwestern Colorado were chemically characterized using neutron activation analysis. Eleven clay sources local to the sites in the McElmo Drainage area were also analyzed. The results revealed two distinct compositional groups containing relative frequencies that imply local production. The occurrence of trade between the two sites was also identified.
So far all the formulas or equations for the bibliographic scattering have been derived or formulated through item approach. As such, the selection is not randomised and there can not be any empty source. A source approach has been presented here with minimum of assumptions and conditions. An equation of scattering distribution is derived. If there areM sources andN items, the probability or the relative frequency of the sources withith group items is given byW(i) KM–i=C M–i exp(
M). Suggestions and procedures for experimental verifications have been sketched. Derivations from Bose-Einstein statistics with Gibrat's law1 2 have been discussed and compared.
Authors:M. F. Vianna, S. Pelizza, M. L. Russo, S. Rodriguez and A. C. Scorsetti
The diversity of fungal endophytes is poorly known and particularly in the case of Nicotiana tabacum, the literature is limited. The present study assessed and compared the diversity and distribution of endophytic fungi between different organs of tobacco plants. We calculated the relative frequency and rates of colonisation and of isolation of endophytic fungi in roots, stems and leaves, as well as the Shannon–Wiener and Simpson diversity indexes. Similarities between assemblages from the studied organs were also analysed. A total of 1588 endophytic fungal strains assigned to 31 morphospecies were isolated. The highest diversity of endophytes was found in leaves, being Fusarium graminearum and Alternaria botrytis the most common fungal species. This study provides information on the distribution of fungal endophytes inhabiting leaves, stems, and roots of N. tabacum and thus can serve as a starting point for increasing our comprehension on the interactions in which these fungi are involved.
Bevezetés és célkitűzés: A jelen kutatás célja, hogy
szisztematikus irodalomkeresésre épülő hálózati metaanalízis segítségével
összehasonlítsa a 2-es típusú cukorbetegség terápiájában alkalmazott,
metforminnal kombinált nátrium-glükóz kotranszporter-2 (SGLT2)-gátlókat a
húgyúti fertőzések kialakulási kockázatának vizsgálatán keresztül.
Módszer: A MEDLINE és EMBASE adatbázisokban történt
irodalomkeresés alapján beválogatott randomizált, kontrollos klinikai
vizsgálatok húgyúti fertőzések gyakoriságára vonatkozó eredményeit hálózati
metaanalízis segítségével foglaltuk össze, melyben a közös komparátor a
placebóval kombinált vagy monoterápiaként adott metformin volt.
Eredmények: Az irodalomkeresés során 10 165 hivatkozást
azonosítottunk, s ezek közül 10 közlemény eredményeit tartalmazza a hálózati
metaanalízis, amely alapján a húgyúti fertőzések kockázata a metforminnal
kombinált, kis dózisú ertugliflozin mellett számszerűleg alacsonyabb volt a
többi SGLT2-gátlóhoz képest (ertugliflozin, 5 mg vs.
empagliflozin, 10 mg: RR = 0,606, 95%-os CrI: 0,264–1,415; ertugliflozin, 5 mg
vs. dapagliflozin, 10 mg: RR = 0,853, 95%-os CrI:
0,301–2,285). Az empagliflozin 25 mg-os dózisa mellett a húgyúti fertőzés
kockázata számszerűleg alacsonyabbnak adódott az ertugliflozin 15 mg-os (RR =
0,745, 95%-os CrI: 0,330–1,610), valamint a dapagliflozin 10 mg-os (RR = 0,680,
95%-os CrI: 0,337–1,289) dózisához képest. A hatóanyagok, illetve a dózisok
közötti eltérés a húgyúti fertőzések tekintetében nem bizonyult statisztikailag
szignifikánsnak. A metaregressziós elemzések alapján a kiindulási éhomi
plazmavércukorszint statisztikailag szignifikáns, pozitív irányú összefüggést
mutatott a húgyúti fertőzések relatív gyakoriságával (β = 0,785, 95%-os CrI:
0,062–1,587). Következtetések: A húgyúti fertőzések relatív
gyakoriságát vizsgálva nem igazolható statisztikailag szignifikáns különbség a
vizsgált, metforminnal kombinált SGLT2-gátló kezelések között. A jelen tanulmány
példaként szolgálhat arra, hogy szabadon rendelkezésre álló eszközök
felhasználásával lebonyolítható egy hálózati metaanalízis, amely az egészségügyi
technológiák relatív hatásosságának, biztonságosságának értékeléséhez gyakran
nélkülözhetetlen. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(13): 491–501.
Authors:András Gáspárdy, Viktoria Holly, Petra Zenke, Ákos Maróti-Agóts, László Sáfár, Ágnes Bali Papp and Endre Kovács
The authors studied the present status of Hungarian indigenous sheep breeds based on the genetic background of scrapie resistance. The aim of this investigation was to estimate the relative frequency of prion haplotypes, genotypes and risk categories, as well as to reveal the efficiency of the scrapie eradication programme achieved over the last decade. A novel approach in the characterisation of prion by using its genic variation was also implemented. The authors established that the proportion of deleterious sites (%) can be a useful indicator of the eradication programme. Based on a large sample size, it was confirmed that the scrapie resistance of the Cikta breed is low, and the classification of this breed according to risk category has not improved. However, the frequent genotype ARQ and risk category 3 can also be considered characteristic of the breed. The careful use of these genotypes is permitted and will contribute to the maintenance of breed diversity. The response of prion genic variation to selection for scrapie resistance in the other breeds (Tsigai, Milking Tsigai, White Racka, Black Racka and Gyimes Racka) was definitely successful.
The change of the number of turnip moth (Scotia segetum Schiff.) females was examined at 65 different light trap stations between 1957 and 1990. There are two generations of the examined species in Hungary, but the individual number of the first generation is low year by year, so we processed only the data of the second generation. Only those generations were examined that had more than 100 samples because of the statistical reliability. Thirty-three light trap stations were suitable for this examination. The joint number of yearly caught male and female individuals and also separately the samples of females were summarised for each observing station. The change of female individual number as a function of total individual number was determined from the coherent pairs of value. The connection can be described by linear function. The proportion of females is 38%. The relative frequency of females was also determined in the function of the individual number. The shown point-mass is similar to the damped vibration known at technical systems. It was established that the female proportion was higher than the average if the individual number is low, but it showed average value when the individual number was high. It can also be established that the female proportion is significantly high in some cases before gradation years.
The present paper outlines a historical change in Hungarian syntax by focusing on participial constructions and their clausal equivalents in ten different Hungarian translations of the Bible. The first part investigates the relative frequency of the relevant structures and, relying upon statistical data, it characterises the process of a shift from analytic to synthetic constructions. Then we analyse secondary semantic differences among the various structures (participial constructions, subordinate clauses and coordinate clauses) and propose that in the case of subordination the semantic relationship between the matrix sentence and the dependent clause is expressed in an explicit manner. However, if the meaning of the related participial construction is complex (combining features of temporal, causal, and instrumental relationships), a subordinate clause can express only one of these, and the other features are not represented in it. Coordination, on the other hand, especially asyndetic (conjunctionless) coordination and that involving the conjunctions és, s ‘and’, is more capable of embracing several shades of meaning. Thus, in terms of their semantic properties, coordinate clauses are more similar to participial constructions than subordinate clauses are. Finally, the paper raises some general ideas with respect to the theoretical background of this kind of shift in sentence construction. The framework of the study is what is called “traditional grammar”, but it also introduces some terms of functional grammar.
In the domain of non-verbal predication, three predication strategies are identified in Erzya. Predication is expressed in nominal, adjectival and locational predicate constructions by (i) the zero-copula construction, (ii) the predicative suffix construction or (iii) the copula construction. The variation of predication patterns is constrained by at least two factors. The part-of-speech affiliation of the predicate affects the choice of predication strategy. The relative frequency and degree of obligation for using the predicative suffix construction decreases as we move along the scale verb-adjective-noun. Thus, nominal predicates are encoded more often by zero-copula constructions than adjectival and locational predicates are. Another important factor that affects the choice of predication strategy is genre. To encode the present tense, predicative suffix constructions are more frequent in written Standard Erzya, while the zero-copula construction is more typical of spontaneous speech and translations. In written Standard Erzya, the predicative suffix construction occurs more regularly than the copula construction for encoding the past tense, too, whereas in the data coming from folklore, spontaneous speech and translations, the copula construction is clearly preferred.