. Barro , J. R. – McCleary , R. M. ( 2003 a): Religion Adherence Data , http://scholar.harvard.edu/barro/ publications/religion-adherence-data Barro , J. R. – McCleary , R. M
overlook. Nonetheless, evidence for ritual practices using mushrooms are attested to numerous artifacts, especially in folklore, mythology, and early mystery religions of the region. These involved both Amanita and Psilocybe species, as well as other
This article deals with the problem of the religion of the ethnic Germans in Hungary. It is assumed that Catholicism serves as an important item of the ethnic identity of this minority from diachronic as well as from synchronic perspective. Catholic religion has the historic function to help the ethnic survival. Religion has a very important role to divide and to unite ethnic minorities and the majority. A great deal of the Germans settled in Hungary in the 18th century is Lutheran. Catholic and Lutheran Germans are divided by their religion, which can be seen at their marriage customs, too. Since the Hungarian majority is also Catholic, both Germans and Hungarians have the cult of the Blessed Virgin, who is held by the Hungarian believers as Patrona Hungarica. With the help of a shared religion with the majority, they could develop a basis for national feelings and for assimilation, too.
Suetonius describes the lives of Caesars according to categories such as antecedents, birth, career, achievements, morals, religion, appareance, and death. In my paper I examine the function of religion in The Deified Augustus of Suetonius. Firstly I list the places where phenomena concerning religion appear. Then I analyse the attitude of Augustus towards religions; e.g. he took dreams very seriously, and regarded certain auspices and omens as infallible. Suetonius treats the religious beliefs of Augustus long because he regards them as very important. Augustus wanted to enhance the sacred character of his principate, therefore he acquired membership in several priesthoods.
The relation between science and religion has always been a question of interest since the early 19th century. Following international tendencies, in the past ten years a related polemic about evolution has become increasingly intensive in Hungary. The starting point of our research was the assumption that differences exist in the views of those with a factual knowledge of evolution (e.g. students who learned about evolution and studied aspects of it in laboratory, etc.), and those, whose attitudes towards evolution were formed exclusively by a general world view they devote themselves to. Subjects were university students. Questions we asked were the following: To what extent and in what way are students religious? Are biology students less or more religious then the average university student? Can religion encourage (or discourage) scientific thinking? Do insights of religion and of science complement or contradict each other? Do religion and science refer to the same kind of reality? What contributes more to a student's thinking about evolution: is it (lack or) existence of religious background or is it university education? Do students of biology attempt to reconcile evolution and creation? We discuss the background and present and analyse the - sometimes surprising - results.
The goal of my research is to put together from scattered mosaics an intellectual portrait of Ibn al-Muqaffa c , a complex and enigmatic thinker, and a key figure in the transmission of the late antique heritage to the Arabo-Islamic culture. This article is the third in a series. The first, “ La Lumière et les Ténèbres dans l’œuvre d’Ibn al-Muqaffa c ” (Light and Darkness in Ibn al-Muqaffa c ) was published in AOH Vol. 61 (3). In that article, I set out the rationalist and anti-Islamic ideas presented in works attributed to Ibn al-Muqaffa c . The second article, “On the authenticity of al-Adab al-ṣaġīr attributed to Ibn al-Muqaffa c and the titles of the Kitāb al-ādāb al-kabīr, al-Adab al-ṣaġīr, tal-Yatīma and the Polemic against Islam ” was published in AOH Vol. 62 (2). This third article complements the picture of the rationalist and anti-Islamic Ibn al-Muqaffa c that I have presented in the first article and shows another side of his attitude towards religion. According to the texts quoted here, the rationality of people is not enough to secure the peace of the individual soul, much less the peace of the state. The welfare of society requires a well functioning state whose cohesion is best ensured by religion.The introduction is a short outline of the correlation between Ibn al-Muqaffa c ’s social status and his attitude towards power, reason and religion. In the first section, I will quote and analyse some views attributed to him that reveal an unusual but coherent approach towards religion. The second section will present his ideas and reasoning that links reason, religion and power. The conclusion of this article will not end this series on Ibn al-Muqaffa c , but will be followed by the next article entitled: “A Self-portrait of a Wise Jackal; Ibn al-Muqaffa c ’s Heroes: the Sage and the Sovereign.”
Many of the Urartian inscriptions contain references to the ritual praxis of the Urartians. These inscriptions deal with the foundation of cities, fortresses or agricultural projects. According to the texts, many ritual activities had been prescribed step by step, when a part of an establishment was finished. Many of them refer to the yearly agricultural activities or the calendar, e.g. the budding or harvesting. There are phrases in these ritual contexts furthermore, which are opposed to each other, e.g. “deserted”, “inhabited” or “enemy”, “own”. The study compares the ritual processes that are attached to the meaning of different ritual transitions and binary opposites.
Latin Epigraphy and Roman social history. His academic heritage is already a source for historiographic research and publications. 1 Following the evolution of the very notion of Roman religion in his work, 2
To establish some relation between folk religion and politics, one could see that the present scenario in the technologically developed world is somewhat different. Thanks to the advent of knowledge in all spheres of human life and scientific and technological development the social as well as political bearing that religion could exercise on modern folk life, peoples ’ attitudes are becoming different.
During the Roman Empire, when an autonomous Etruscan culture had disappeared long ago, aspects of the old Etruscan religion were still surviving and had been integrated in the Roman traditional religion: the haruspices, acting as diviners for public or private purposes all over the Roman empire, could interpret prodigies, what Roman priests and even augurs did not. When, with the Christians, a new religion arrived which risked to overthrow the old national religion of the Romans, Etruscan religious tradition played an important role against the rise of Christianity: with the sacred books of the Etruscans, with the prophets who were alleged to have created the Etruscan religious tradition, the Romans could find in their own heritage what could match the Bible of the Christians or their prophets. Unsurprisingly, haruspices were active in the resistance movement against the new religion.