overlook. Nonetheless, evidence for ritual practices using mushrooms are attested to numerous artifacts, especially in folklore, mythology, and early mystery religions of the region. These involved both Amanita and Psilocybe species, as well as other
This article deals with the problem of the religion of the ethnic Germans in Hungary. It is assumed that Catholicism serves as an important item of the ethnic identity of this minority from diachronic as well as from synchronic perspective. Catholic religion has the historic function to help the ethnic survival. Religion has a very important role to divide and to unite ethnic minorities and the majority. A great deal of the Germans settled in Hungary in the 18th century is Lutheran. Catholic and Lutheran Germans are divided by their religion, which can be seen at their marriage customs, too. Since the Hungarian majority is also Catholic, both Germans and Hungarians have the cult of the Blessed Virgin, who is held by the Hungarian believers as Patrona Hungarica. With the help of a shared religion with the majority, they could develop a basis for national feelings and for assimilation, too.
: Hindu Omens , Safdarjang Enclave, New Delhi.
CROOKE, William 1968: Popular Religion and Folklore of Northern India , II Edition, Manoharalal, New Delhi.
DUBOIS, J. A. 1936: Hindu Manners, Customs and
Suetonius describes the lives of Caesars according to categories such as antecedents, birth, career, achievements, morals, religion, appareance, and death. In my paper I examine the function of religion in The Deified Augustus of Suetonius. Firstly I list the places where phenomena concerning religion appear. Then I analyse the attitude of Augustus towards religions; e.g. he took dreams very seriously, and regarded certain auspices and omens as infallible. Suetonius treats the religious beliefs of Augustus long because he regards them as very important. Augustus wanted to enhance the sacred character of his principate, therefore he acquired membership in several priesthoods.
The relation between science and religion has always been a question of
interest since the early 19th century. Following international tendencies, in
the past ten years a related polemic about evolution has become increasingly
intensive in Hungary. The starting point of our research was the assumption
that differences exist in the views of those with a factual knowledge of
evolution (e.g. students who learned about evolution and studied aspects of it
in laboratory, etc.), and those, whose attitudes towards evolution were formed
exclusively by a general world view they devote themselves to. Subjects were
university students. Questions we asked were the following: To what extent and
in what way are students religious? Are biology students less or more religious
then the average university student? Can religion encourage (or discourage)
scientific thinking? Do insights of religion and of science complement or
contradict each other? Do religion and science refer to the same kind of
reality? What contributes more to a student's thinking about evolution: is it
(lack or) existence of religious background or is it university education? Do
students of biology attempt to reconcile evolution and creation? We discuss the
background and present and analyse the - sometimes surprising - results.
The goal of my research is to put together from scattered mosaics an intellectual portrait of Ibn al-Muqaffa
, a complex and enigmatic thinker, and a key figure in the transmission of the late antique heritage to the Arabo-Islamic culture. This article is the third in a series. The first, “
La Lumière et les Ténèbres dans l’œuvre d’Ibn al-Muqaffac
” (Light and Darkness in Ibn al-Muqaffa
) was published in
Vol. 61 (3). In that article, I set out the rationalist and anti-Islamic ideas presented in works attributed to Ibn al-Muqaffa
. The second article, “On the authenticity of
attributed to Ibn al-Muqaffa
and the titles of the
Kitāb al-ādāb al-kabīr, al-Adab al-ṣaġīr, tal-Yatīma
Polemic against Islam
” was published in
Vol. 62 (2). This third article complements the picture of the rationalist and anti-Islamic Ibn al-Muqaffa
that I have presented in the first article and shows another side of his attitude towards religion. According to the texts quoted here, the rationality of people is not enough to secure the peace of the individual soul, much less the peace of the state. The welfare of society requires a well functioning state whose cohesion is best ensured by religion.The introduction is a short outline of the correlation between Ibn al-Muqaffa
’s social status and his attitude towards power, reason and religion. In the first section, I will quote and analyse some views attributed to him that reveal an unusual but coherent approach towards religion. The second section will present his ideas and reasoning that links reason, religion and power. The conclusion of this article will not end this series on Ibn al-Muqaffa
, but will be followed by the next article entitled: “A Self-portrait of a Wise Jackal; Ibn al-Muqaffa
’s Heroes: the Sage and the Sovereign.”
THOMPSON, K. 1986: Beliefs and Ideology . London and New York: Tavistock Publications.
Beliefs and Ideology
TURNER, B. S. 1991: Religion and Social Theory . London: Sage. (2nd edition)
Religion and Social Theory
rewarders of humanity and mercy, and the avengers of perfidy and injustice. And thus religion, even in its rudest form, gave a sanction to the rules of morality, long before the age of artificial reasoning and philosophy." Adam Smith, op. cit., chapter