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The present article deals with two legitimising elements to be found in the Turkic epic cycle Edige. According to oral tradition Edige’s genealogy goes back to Angšïbay who married a heavenly swan girl thus laying foundation to the Manghit clan. But in the same oral tradition Edige’s forefather is identified with a Muslim saint ( walī or awliyā ) called Baba Tükles. The article tries to analyse the process of linking the Muslim tradition of Baba Tükles, who in written sources appears as the Islamiser of the Golden Horde, to a pre-Islamic tradition about the superiority of a clan originating form a heavenly swan girl. Similarly to folklore and oral tradition, modern religious traditions also display the elements of Islamised folk belief and Central Asian Muslim (e.g. Sufi) traditions, where worshiping ancestor spirits is often intermingled with the respect for Muslim saints who were Islamisers or Sufi practitioners. Some historical and ethnographical data are presented to elucidate the parallel processes that took place in folklore and religious traditions.

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features of local psilocybin-containing mushroom species; and 4. ancient psychedelic mushroom use attested to in artifacts from religious traditions in all of the major regions of the world. Worldwide psilocybin mushroom species

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During the Roman Empire, when an autonomous Etruscan culture had disappeared long ago, aspects of the old Etruscan religion were still surviving and had been integrated in the Roman traditional religion: the haruspices, acting as diviners for public or private purposes all over the Roman empire, could interpret prodigies, what Roman priests and even augurs did not. When, with the Christians, a new religion arrived which risked to overthrow the old national religion of the Romans, Etruscan religious tradition played an important role against the rise of Christianity: with the sacred books of the Etruscans, with the prophets who were alleged to have created the Etruscan religious tradition, the Romans could find in their own heritage what could match the Bible of the Christians or their prophets. Unsurprisingly, haruspices were active in the resistance movement against the new religion.

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The following study shows metaphorical meanings of a verb(païr) that comes from the religious tradition. Two texts will be presented: a poem of Raimbaut d'Aurenga and an occitan short story. Both speak about love and both use païr in a somewhat unusual way. In the poem, païr expresses love of the Domna; in the short story, after their marriage, lovers take new names and the wife has one that contains païr. The study tries to reveal a possible literary relationship between semantic fields of païr and aimer.

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Abstract

Although Spiritualism grew out of religious traditions, it was neither a traditional faith community nor a typical reform movement. Spiritualism presented itself as ‘vanguard' that is a progressive, even radical movement, and was highly aware of its public image in the media. It hatched its own theoretical system, adopted issues of social relevance and created its own lines of tradition. It not only used experimental arrangements and recording techniques in order to pursue for immaterial qualities or sensations, but showed unparalleled signs of visualizing itself as a movement. It was driven by a strong proselytizing impetus and, eventually, tended to institutionalize itself. Considering all these aspects, it is safe to say that Spiritualism was the early ism movement par excellence.

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In this contribution, we evaluate the performance of the Supreme Audit Office's (SAO) audit activity in the Visegrad Four (V4) countries. We focus on the analysis of the control activities of the SAO of the Slovak Republic and we compare the results with other countries. We focused on the SAO's function control, according to the number of controls undertaken over the period 2014–2016, and evaluated an auditors's burden (the number of controls performed by one inspector). We state the positives, but also the risks of expanding the area of control over the self-government bodies, and we put forward proposals to reduce these risks. Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland have the same or similar historical trajectories, cultural and intellectual values and they share common roots of religious traditions. Therefore we assume that they may display certain key similarities in institutional development, including in the area of public finance control. We review how these countries have worked in the area today, with a focus on the period between 2014 and 2016.

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Ethnological and religious studies point to differentiation in the status of men and women, which eventually results from cultural conditions, and not from biological differences. Many researchers indicate asymmetry connected with the gender, which also refers to the religious sphere. The nonliterate peoples consider life to be the fundamental value and that is the reason why their cultural and religious traditions put emphasis on woman's biological functions and see procreation as her main vocation and task. A woman performs the role of a native doctor and healer among many African peoples, since the basic medical care takes place within the family. In Africa older women after menopause perform priestly duties to a smaller degree. Researchers of the African peoples emphasize that spirit possession takes place more frequently in the case of women than men, which they consider a reaction to the inferior status of women in the social, political and religious life. Both men and women are diviners among manyAfrican peoples. Among some peoples of Eastern and Southern Africa women control the Earth fertility and they are renowned rainmakers. Women belong to secret societies in some African peoples. Both men and women can be sorcerers and witches, although among many African peoples it is more often older women who are accused of witchcraft, which is explained by social and economic inequality and the desire for power.

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Hungarian Experience in the United States Szuch, Yolanda Danyi 1987: A Church's Response to the Preservation of Ethnic Heritage: Religious Traditions at St. Stephen's Church, in: Ahern, John (ed.), The Preservation of Ethnic

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) The conservative character of mystical experience. In Katz, S. T. (ed.) Mysticism and religious tradition. 3-60. Oxford university Press, New York Mysticism and religious tradition

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evidence of the seminal role of psychedelics in spiritual inspiration and experience, and even in the foundations of religious traditions. When Allegro ( 1970 ) made this paradigm-shattering proposal regarding the roles of entheogens in early Christianity

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