GIS-based analysis of energy demand facilitates the planning and implementation of renewable energies in urban space. The process of preparing an urban energy concept concerns many actors and facilities, but increases also the acceptance of the energy transition in the proximity. A calculation of energy potentials in the city of Augsburg (Germany) illustrates an usual way of spatial energy planning.
In this paper we analyse the trends and developments of energy imports as a percentage of gross inland energy consumption including bunkers in Hungary and the European Union countries between 2000 and 2011. Data show that the average of the energy dependence increased in the EU27 Member States (7.1 percentage points) and in Hungary, too (3.4 percentage points). The energy intensity in Member States is examined as well. According to the data the energy intensity decreased in the majority of the Member States, the average decreased by 16 percent.
, W. – Iskandar , L. – Liao , P. ( 2018 ): The Relationship Between Electricity Emission Factor and RenewableEnergy Certificate: The Free Rider and Outsider Effect . Sustainable Environment Research 28 ( 6 ): 422 – 429