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The current work attempts to investigate the vital role of linguistics in saving and defending ‘reputation’ as an important social and cultural phenomenon that is widely known in Jordan as al-isim ‘the name’ or al-sum‘a ‘the reputation’. A good example that illustrates the common application of this social phenomenon in the Arabic culture is an ordinary job known as samsara the act of marketing a property, which, to the best of my knowledge, has not been studied in the linguistic literature. The study attempts to shed lights on the different linguistic features associated with the struggle to save ‘reputation’ within the field of samsara. It argues that it is a big challenge for al-simsār, ‘the dealer’, to resist losing ‘reputation’, as maintaining it requires mastering the skill of using certain linguistic strategies and structures, which I call linguistic power, to maintain al-isim or al-sum‘a as an important social and cultural value. It is an interesting case where three different fields (business, linguistics, and sociology) interact in which business appeals to using linguistic and social tools to survive socially and professionally.

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Generosity seems to be a cross-culturally ubiquitous feature of life. Helping others is considered as a costly act through which the altruists gain popularity and reputation in their reference group and this elevated reputation will pay off for them in future social relationships. This costly signaling theory has been widely tested in pre-industrial societies. Our purpose was to examine if the assumptions of CST are verifiable in modern, industrial societies. Using a complex experimental procedure with four subsequent phases we could examine reputation-gaining in realistic conditions. We found that more people are willing to offer help to a charity organization when their group mates are aware of their altruistic intention than those whose offer was concealed from the rest of the group. In return, the offered charity service increased the altruist's reputation in the group; in the light of sociometric surveys they gained more popularity than the others. Finally, it turned out that whereas men are more likely to offer potentialhelp in the presence of others, women provide more actualhelp.

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, journals, and scholarly reputations . American Journal of Sociology , 101 ( 2 ): 433 – 494 . COAN , R. W. ( 1968 ), Dimensions of psychological theory . American Psychologist , 23 : 715 – 722

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Scientometrics
Authors: J. Baumert, J. Naumann and P. Roeder

Abstract  

Within the theoretical framework of reputation as a social medium of interchange in the system of higher education this study analyses the institutional stratification of university departments in the field of economics and business administration. In contrast to the still prevailing normative idea of basic equality between academic institutions in the Federal Republic of Germany the empirical results indicate a stable hierarchy of reputation, very similar to the stratification pattern typical of the US American university system. Structural equation models show that the institutional hierarchy can be predicted with considerable accuracy with indicators of scientific activity and impact and structural characteristics of departments and universities. The analyses show both the performance-based validity of institutional reputation and the bias in access to the competitive academic markets due to structural differences of the universities and departments.

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degree of cooperativeness ( Sznycer et al. 2018 ). Indeed, humans are exceptionally sensitive in recognizing the cooperative willingness of their group members and estimate their reputation on the basis of this information ( Milinski 2016 ; Milinski et

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Abstract  

In this paper I discuss the relation between widely used “Scientometric” measures and “reputation” of research groups within the scientific community. To this goal, I present the result of the detailed comparison of two research groups of theoretical astrophysics in post-world-war-2nd Japan. Though one of the two groups gained much higher reputation within the research community, we could not find much difference in the macroscopic indices such as the number of publications or the average citation index. The two groups showed similar scores for these macroscopic indices. This result suggests that widely used quantitative measures of the productivity do not give meaningful measure for the actual contribution of a research group to science.

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Competition is relatively seldom discussed in present-day business ethics. Reasons could be that the social contract and stakeholders paradigms, central in business ethics, do not easily make room for competition and competitors. Reflective contributions concerning the issue of competition refer to its function in a civilisation process and in social progress. More directly related to ethical considerations are remarks made by Frank H. Knight (1923), Tom Sorrell (Sorrell - Hendry 1994) and Norman E. Bowie (1999). The paper summarises these contributions, and then presents recent discussions concerning basic institutions of the social fabric, viz. the market, government and civil society. The thesis of the paper is that, in order to regulate competition in a morally legitimate way, interventions are needed by representatives of these basic institutions, working together in alternating alliances, and referring to moral norms that are inherent in the market system itself as well as to external, overarching norms, derived from human morality at large.

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Psychology). Budapest: Balassi. Politikai pszichológia. (Political Psychology) Raub, W. and Weesie, J. (1990): Reputation and Efficiency In

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This article contributes some data on the relative research performance of university departments, a topic of growing interest. It analyses the total published andper capita publication rates of 52 UK Politics Departments from 1978 to 1984. The main findings are that 1) departmentalper capita publication rates vary enormously: 2) a department's relative productivity is strongly correlated across all types of publication; 3) a few departments are substantially more productive then the rest; 4) among highly productive departments, one can usefully distinguish between those with collective and those with individual strength 5) a department's productivity is not related to its size. Various rankings are compiled and compared with theTHES peer review and the UGC's classification of research quality.

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The dialect lexical representations of notions from the “public opinion” sphere are the subject of the research. The motivational analysis of such words allowed to reveal the key meanings “showing the attitude to the person”, “assessment”, “influence on the person”, and “the person’s image”. The native Russian speaker bases on them the choice of the motivational feature for the words that represent the lexical-semantic field “public opinion”.

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