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In wheat production, N fertilisation is one of the most effective agro-technical devices to increase yield and N concentration. In Hungary, fertiliser use, particularly that of N, has dropped dramatically in the last decade. The aim of this experiment was to study the direct and residual effect of N fertilisation on the grain yield and N uptake of winter wheat after 30 years of intensive N fertilisation. A long-term fertilisation experiment was set up on brown forest soil (Eutric Cambisol) with medium N status at Keszthely (Hungary) in 1965. In 1995, the plots were halved. From that year on, half of the plots no longer received N fertiliser, while the other half of the plots was fertilised with increasing N doses. Two years after the treatment modification, no residual effect of long-term intensive N fertilisation (10.44 t N/30 years) could be detected. Under the investigated site conditions, the omission of yearly N fertilisation led to low wheat yields and low N concentrations both in the grains and in the vegetative organs above the uppermost internode.

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residual effect of K fertilization in a Hungarian corn monoculture long-term field trial, 1990–1999. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 33 . 3105–3119. Csathó P The residual effect of K

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. 2000 65 229 248 Jat, R. S., Ahlawat, I. P. S. (2006): Direct and residual effect of vermicompost, biofertilizers and

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Soil management practices that utilize organic matter have great potential to increase productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. Field studies were carried out between September 1995 and August 1998 to determine the effects of three leguminous crop species: velvet bean ( Mucuna pruriens var. utilis ), groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) and cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), and inorganic fertilizer on the soil properties and succeeding maize grain yield when grown in rotation on a sandy soil classified as Haplic Lixisol in the forest-savannah transition zone of Ghana. The legumes were established in the minor seasons and maize in all the plots in the major cropping seasons. A 2 × 3 factorial design laid out in a randomized complete block was used. The main plots consisted of three leguminous crop residues and the sub-plots of two fertilizer levels (0 and 45 kg N ha −1 , 19 kg P ha −1 , 19 kg K ha −1 ). The control consisted of maize following maize with the recommended fertilizer rate (90 kg N ha −1 , 37 kg P ha −1 , 37 kg K ha −1 ). On average the Mucuna plots added 4.0 t ha −1 of crop residue to the soil in a season and cowpea 1.0 t ha −1 . The preceding crops had little effect on the soil properties. Leaf area index, total dry matter and maize grain yields were significantly affected by fertilizer. The best maize grain yield (6787 kg ha −1 ) was recorded in the first year on Mucuna plots with half the recommended rate of fertilizer. The cropping sequence with Mucuna residue was the most efficient. The gap in maize grain yield between the fertilized and unfertilized treatments widened each successive year. The interaction between organic matter and fertilizer may have been limited due to the surface application of the organic residue.

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Dongale, J. H., Zende, G. K. 1977: Residual effect of micronutrient application to groundnut crop on the grain yield of succeeding wheat crop. Indian J. Agron. , 22 (2), 110-117. Residual effect of micronutrient application to

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Aulakh, M. S., Pasricha, N. S. (1979): Responses of gram (Cicer arietinum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris L.) to phosphorus as influenced by applied sulphur and its residual effect on moong (Phaseolus aureus L

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., Kumar, V., Singh, R. G., Sharma, R. B. (2002): Effect of integrated nutrient management on transplanted rice ( Oryza sativa ) and its residual effect on succeeding wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) crop in rainfed lowlands. Indian J. Agron

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G. Effect of vibratory stimulation training on maximal force and flexibility J. Sports Sci. 1994 12 561 566 Issurin VB, Tenenbaum G: Acute and residual effect of vibratory

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A farming system experiment was conducted under dryland conditions in the western zone of Tamil Nadu with cropping, agroforestry, pigeons, goats, buffaloes and farm pond as the enterprise combination from July 2000 to March 2002. The cropping system of sorghum (fodder) + cowpea (fodder) followed by chickpea + coriander was supplied with either composted goat manure or composted buffalo manure at 100 or 75% of the production levels in order to investigate the effect of the source and amount of manures from the livestock enterprises linked in the system on cropping. The application of composted buffalo manure at 100% production level resulted in higher yield attributes, yield and returns in the second year, though the application of the recommended dose of fertilizers gave higher values for the same parameters in the first year, due to the buildup of nutrients over time. Higher yields of chickpea and coriander also indicated the favourable residual effect of the organic manures. This treatment ranked best with the highest benefit to cost ratio among the treatments imposed.

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A field experiment on a greengram-wheat cropping sequence was carried out under limited water supply conditions in 1997-98 and 1998-99 at the farm of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. The greengram was sown either on flat beds or on broad beds 2 m in width, divided by furrows, with 0, 30 and 60 kg P2O5/ha. After the harvest of greengram pods, wheat was grown in the same plots, either with the greengram stover removed or with the stover incorporated along with 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg N/ha applied to wheat. The grain yield of greengram was higher when sown on broad beds with furrows compared to flat bed sowing, and the application of 30 or 60 kg P2O5/ha resulted in significantly higher grain yields compared to no phosphorus application. The combination of broad bed and furrows with phosphorus fertilization was found to be ideal for achieving higher productivity in greengram. The land configuration treatments had no impact on the productivity of wheat. The application of phosphorus to the preceding crop had a significant residual effect on the grain yield of wheat. The incorporation of greengram stover also significantly increased the grain yield of wheat. The increasing levels of N increased the grain yield of wheat significantly up to 80 kg/ha. The combination of greengram stover incorporation and 80 kg N/ha applied to wheat significantly increased the grain yield. Further, there was a significant interaction effect between the phosphorus applied to the preceding crop and N levels given to wheat on the grain yield of wheat.

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