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Type I resistance is a significant and powerful resistance component. Spraying inoculation covers reactions to both Type I and Type II. A significant synergetic effect was detected between Type I and Type II QTLs. It seems that Type I resistance at present cannot be directly measured, only as a difference between point and spraying inoculation. However, this does not influence the success of the selection. For breeding the spraying methodology is more suitable as it considers much wider genetic background than the point inoculation does. The highest resistance in the Szeged program was achieved by the use of exotic spring wheat sources in winter wheat, but excellent agronomy types were identified at a relative low ratio. Good or excellent resistance can be identified at a low rate in breeding material without exotic FHB resistance sources, but their agronomy value is much better. Ratio of high resistance is frequent in winter wheat lines created form winter and spring wheat resistance sources. An efficient phenotypic selection is inevitable. Repeatability of the test is generally good or excellent; LSD values are normally less than 10 % of the variation width. FDK and toxin measurements are integrant part of the program since 35 and 20 years, respectively. Several methodical considerations are discussed.

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Physiology International
Authors: SL Buckner, SJ Dankel, KT Mattocks, MB Jessee, JG Mouser, and JP Loenneke

response, which may increase exercise adherence. The affective response to resistance exercise is perhaps one of the more overlooked variables in the resistance-training literature. This is important, as participation in resistance-type exercise is

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Introduction

Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function.

Methods

11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography.

Results

Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusions

Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully.

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Hungarian Medical Journal
Authors: Barbara Buday, Tünde Horváth, Enikő Kulcsár, Csaba Salamon, Botond Literáti Nagy, Kitty Barta, Márta Vitai, Rita Józsa, Zsuzsanna Vecsei, Katalin Bezzegh, József Kiss, Éva Péterfai, László Koltay, and László Korányi

Worldwide there is an increasing number of patients with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis. Paradoxically, the diabetes epidemic is driven by the same obesity which protects the bones in obese females. With these core facts in mind the aim of the study was to investigate the connection between early glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, bone density and metabolism. Patients and methods: 20 healthy patients and 51 glucose intolerant women in perimenopause matched for age (49 ± 9 years) were selected for the study. Their metabolic status was determined by OGTT and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. For each of these patients, glucose, insulin, leptin, resistin, adiponectin and lipid levels were measured. Body composition and bone mineral density over lumbar spine and the femur neck were measured by DEXA. Results: There was no difference in BMD observed between the two groups. Significant correlation was found between total body glucose utilisation and bone density in the healthy group (lumbar spine r = –0,4921, p < 0.05, femur neck: r = –0.4972, p < 0.05), while this correlation disappeared (lumbar spine: r = –0.022, ns; femur neck: r = –0.314, ns) with deteriorating glucose tolerance. Among adipokines measured, only adiponectin correlated with lumbar spine density in both groups ( r = –0.5081, p < 0.05; –0.2804, p < 0.05), but not with femur density where this connection disappeared in glucose intolerance (r = –0.6742, p < 0.01; –0.1723, ns). Resorption quotient formed by P1NP/β-crosslaps increased significantly in glucose intolerant subjects. This suggests that bone resorption decreases with worsening insulin resistance. Conclusion: Inverse correlation was found between bone density, glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in healthy women in perimenopause. Furthermore, this connection disappeared with the deterioration of glucose metabolism and the progression of insulin resistance. Decreasing insulin sensitivity of bones and the “escape” from metabolic control may result in hyperdensity, which is frequently observed in Type 2 diabetics.

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M. S. , Li Y. S. , Tian Y. Y. , et al. ( 2014 ), Effect of blade installation angle on power efficiency of resistance type VAWT by CFD study . International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering , 6 ( 1 ), 1 – 7

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Barbara Buday, Tünde Horváth, Enikő Kulcsár, Csaba Salamon, Botond Literáti Nagy, Kitty Barta, Márta Vitai, Rita Józsa, Istvánné Vecsei, Katalin Bezzegh, József Kiss, Éva Péterfai, László Koltay, and László Korányi

Az elhízás, a metabolikus szindróma, a 2-es típusú cukorbetegség és a csontritkulás előfordulása világszerte növekszik, vagyis a világméretű diabéteszjárványt az az elhízás „hajtja”, amely nők esetében erősebb csontokat eredményez. Vizsgálatunk során a glükózanyagcsere-zavar korai időszakában kerestük a csontállapot és a metabolikus paraméterek közötti összefüggéseket. A vizsgálatban 20 egészséges és 51 glükózintoleráns (49 ± 9 év) nőbeteg vett részt. Mértük a szénhidrát-, lipid- és csontanyagcsere paramétereit, a csontok denzitását (lumbális 1–4 csigolyákon és a femur nyakon); cukorterheléses és hyperinsulinaemiás-normoglykaemiás klamp vizsgálatot végeztünk. A csontok denzitása a két csoport között nem különbözött. Az egészségesek denzitása szoros kapcsolatban volt az egésztest-cukorfelhasználással (inzulinérzékenység) (gerinc r = –0,4921, p < 0,05, femur: r = –0,4972, p < 0,05), de a romló glükóztoleranciával ez a kapcsolat megszűnt (gerinc: r = –0,022, ns; femur: r = –0,3136, ns). Az adipokinek közül csak az adiponectin korrelált a denzitással, amíg ez a kapcsolat a cukoranyagcsere romlásával megmaradt a gerincen ( r = –0,5081, p < 0,05; –0,2804, p < 0,05), eltűnt a femuron ( r = –0,6742, p < 0,01; –0,1723, ns). A formációs és reszorpciós markerből képzett „reszorpciós hányados” növekedése a glükózanyagcsere romlásával csökkenő csontreszorpciót jelezte. Adataink az inzulinrezisztencia „gold standard” mérőmódszerét használva szoros kapcsolatot igazoltak a glükózanyagcsere, inzulinérzékenység és a csontok állapota között az egészséges, változó korban lévő nőkben, mely a glükóztolerancia romlásával és az inzulinrezisztencia kialakulásával megbomlik. Az egészségesekben észlelhető, de az inzulinrezisztencia kialakulásával romló, negatív adiponectin-csont kapcsolat értelmezése további vizsgálatokat igényel.

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, A.: Genetic influences of adiponectin on insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes, 2007, 56 , 1198–1209. Doria A. Genetic influences of

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Kornél Simon, Edit Dobó, Anikó Szépvölgyi, Estilla Szalczer, Szilvia Kazup, László Papp, and Erika Varga

415 Reaven, G.: Insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. The end of the beginning. Circulation, 2005, 112 , 3030

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–558. Black, P. H. (2003). The inflammatory response is an integral part of the stress response: Implications for atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome X. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 17 , 350

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kialakulásában.] Diabet. Hung., 2014, 22 (3), 173–179. [Hungarian] 12 Reaven, G.: Insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. The end of the

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