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flammable property limits its applications, so it is necessary to prepare these plastic composites with good flame retardant properties. In order to achieve above aim, many methods for improving fire retardancy of LDPE are investigated, and one of the most

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Abstract  

Flame retardant additives offer a potential short-term solution for reducing the combustibility of composites, and hence the reduction of the associated hazards. A brief review of fire modelling was performed to identify suitable mathematical expressions with which the results of the experimental flame retardant investigation were analysed. These were then used in a limited trial to compare the experimental and calculated ignition parameters. The comparison of simple mathematical equations with fire test results indicated that their ability to reasonably reproduce the experimental ignition parameters of the flame retardant treated composites is dependent on the mechanism of flame retardant activity, particularly the stage of combustion at which it is designed to be active.

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Introduction Among non-halogenated flame retardants, intumescent flame retardant (IFR) is well known as a class of flame retardants in flammable polymers for some of their merits, such as low smoke, low toxicity, low corrosion

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frequently implicate in fire due to their inflammable structural, which would cause injuries and fatalities. To avoid fire, many methods are employed to treat the wood and wood-based materials, among which the use of flame-retardant treatment would be the

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retardants (FRs) [ 1 ]. The manufacture methods of fire resistant wood-based panels involving post-treatment of boards with aqueous solutions of FR compounds and the blending of FR compounds with raw wooden material or adhesives prior to hot-pressing were

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-curing epoxy resins are used as mutually reactive component mixtures. Owing to their poor handling characteristics, epoxy resins cannot be easily used in automated assembly-line processes. Therefore, it is worth to develop one-component, shelf-stable flame-retardant

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Abstract  

The need for more efficient and 'greener' flame retardants for polymeric materials is ever present and of increasing intensity as regulatory agencies continue to display concern about the environmental impact of traditional materials. Compounds capable of multiple modes of action would be particularly desirable. Compounds containing both bromine (for good gas-phase activity) and nitrogen (to promote solid-phase activity) should be good candidates for development as flame retardant agents. A series of 2,4,6-tri[(bromo)xanilino]-1,3,5-triazines have been synthesized and characterized spectroscopically. The degradation characteristics of these compounds have been examined using thermogravimetry. They undergo step-wise decomposition beginning at about 400C.

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Abstract  

The degradation kinetics of polycarbonate with flame retardant additive was investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis. The samples were heated from 30 to 900C in nitrogen atmosphere, with three different heating rates: 5, 10 and 20C min–1. The Vyazovkin model-free kinetics method was applied to calculate the activation energy (E a) of the degradation process as a function of conversion and temperature. The results indicated that the polycarbonate without flame retardant additive starts to loose mass slightly over 380C and the polycarbonate with flame retardant additive, slightly over 390C (with heating rate of 5C min–1). The activation energy for flame retardant polycarbonate and normal polycarbonate were 190 and 165 kJ mol–1, respectively.

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Abstract  

Coir-fiber-based fire retardant nano filler has been developed for epoxy resin (ER). At first, the coir fiber was brominated with saturated bromine water and then treated with stannous chloride solution. After drying, it was grinded to nano dimension and mix well with ER for composites preparations. FTIR, DSC, and TG techniques were used to characterize the brominated coir fiber. Gravimetric analysis shows only 10% by mass of bromination on coir fiber. Bromination decreases the thermal stability of the coir fiber, but it does not affect the final stability of the composites. This study concentrates on the thermal, fire retardant, and morphological properties of nanocomposites prepared by direct mixing. The fire retardancy properties (smoke density and limiting oxygen index) of coir–epoxy nanocomposites have increased significantly.

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Abstract  

The use of thermal methods in the study of flammability and fire retardant action is discussed and compared with the standard test methods. This paper provides an overview with examples drawn from continuing studies on polyester resins, especially those containing halogenated monomers. Thermal analysis and cone calorimetry results are complemented byanalysis of the gaseous and solid products using a wide range of analytical methods.

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