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Aquino, K., Tripp, T.M., Bies, R.J. (2006): Getting even or moving on? Power, procedural justice, and types of offense as predictors of revenge, forgiveness, reconciliation, and avoidance in organizations. Journal of

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There is considerable moral ambivalence in the representation of revenge in anglophone ballads (compared, perhaps, with folktales). A ballad like 'Lamkin' internalises the notion of personal injury as crime. In contrast, the poaching ballad 'The Death of Poor Bill Brown' depicts revenge without legal consequences, giving a sense of moral clarity which is nonetheless deceptive when set against its social background. 'The Gallant Poacher', on the other hand, employs a kind of popular theology to replace the impulse to revenge. Ballads like these do not teach morality, but rather invite the exploration and negotiation of ethical ideas like revenge and justice.

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617 638 Gollwitzer, M., Meder, M. , & Schmitt, M. (2011). What gives victims satisfaction when they seek revenge? European Journal of Social Psychology , 41

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The second thesis of the “Trento Manifesto” investigates to what extent the study of legal phenomena of the past can shed light on contemporary legal developments. This question could be relevant as well with reference to old customary codes, such as the Sardinian one, known as Codice barbaricino.

In specific areas of Sardinia, an oral customary law — which has been in force for centuries — is still partly applicable. This body of customary rules was transcribed in the 20th century into a code by the Italian scholar Antonio Pigliaru, thus drawing the attention of the mainstream legal culture.

The cornerstone of the Sardinian legal system is the concept of “revenge” as the natural way to put an end to conflicts. Due to the peculiar geographical, social and economic features of Sardinia, revenge and its subsequent codification easily became instruments for affirming cultural, social and historical uniqueness. While pastoral societies guarded jealously their legal traditions to protect the community from external influences, Pigliaru used the transcription to build an original Sardinian identity by basing his work on two main questions: did the unwritten Codice barbaricino influence the social and political context of Sardinia? What can this experience of consolidation of an oral legal culture teach to modern legal scholarship?

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Az interperszonális konfliktusok gyakran eszkalálódnak: az egyik fél ellenséges gesztusát követi a másiké. A tét jellemzően emelkedik, az okozott és viszonzásképp kapott károk egyre nagyobbak. Ez a folyamat mindenkinek árt, s a felek gyakran élik meg azt, hogy szeretnének belőle kilépni, de a folyamatnak olyan sodrása van, ami ezt nem engedi megtenni. Kísérletes vizsgálatunkban, amelyben 90 fő vett részt, azt tanulmányoztuk, hogy az eszkalálódó konfliktusokból való kilépést bizonyos interaktív és személyi változók hogyan befolyásolják. Az interaktív tényezők közül a viszonzatlan békülési gesztus, a személyi változók közül pedig a mentalizációs képesség hatása állt érdeklődésünk középpontjában. Kérdéseink megválaszolására egy olyan kísérletes játékhoz fordultunk, amelyben jól értelmezhetőek voltak az eszkalálódó konfliktus, a békülési gesztus, a viszonzatlan békülési kezdeményezés és a bosszú jelenségei. A kísérletes játékot azért tartottuk megfelelő keretnek, mert a viszonzatlan békülési gesztus hatásának megragadása kontrollált környezetben lehetséges benne, másrészt a mentalizációs képesség feltételezett hatásai a stratégiai játékokban megfelelően kibontakozhatnak. A viszonzatlan békülési gesztus későbbi megegyezést befolyásoló hatásáról felállított hipotézisünk egyértelmű megerősítést nyert: ez az esemény nehezíti a későbbi megegyezést. Normát sért, a kezdeményező felet ezáltal presztízssérelem éri, ami az egyébként is jelenlevő anyagi veszteségekhez adódóan további megtorlásra ösztönöz. A mentalizációs képességgel kapcsolatban pedig sikerült megerősíteni azt a várakozásunkat, hogy konfliktusviselkedés esetén a jobb mentalizációval bíró személyek (esetünkben a Szemből olvasás tesztben jobb eredményt elérő személyek), valószínűleg az empátia közvetítésével, könnyebben békülnek, könnyebben tudnak megegyezésre jutván véget vetni a konfliktusoknak.

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The present study examined whether forgiveness culture in young adults was related with forgiveness culture in their parents. One hundred and sixty-six young adults aged 18 to 33, their 166 biological fathers, aged 34 to 72, and their 166 mothers, aged 34 to 63, were presented with the Forgivingness Scale. Young adults' resentment tendencies were linked to their mothers' forgivingness while young adults' revengeful tendencies were linked to their fathers' forgivingness. These results are discussed in terms of gender-type stereotypes regarding the validity of emotions.

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The theme of Kundera’s novels is existencial uncertainty in the sense of the crisis of individual and national identity as well as the crisis of human relationships. This crisis is expressed in the structure of his books, especially in “The Book of Laughter and Forgetting”, by the variation of essential motives which at the same time can be interpreted as the keywords of Kundera’s novels.

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The article is dealing with ghost-stories in the history-writing of early imperial Roman literature (Tabelle 1). Most of the examined ghost-scenes can be identified as unlucky warning prodigia indicating dangerous political conflict in the roman society (before all warning signs to avoid or to revenge nefas-activity). Their most important literary antecendents - as topoi of “tragic” history-writing - can be found in homeric and augustan poems, and in classical greek and roman tragedies (Tabelle 2).

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Bedřich Smetana’s and Josef Wenzig’s Dalibor (1868) attempted to convey into the Czech milieu the central topic of contemporary tragic opera, i. e. the utopy of happiness achieved only in the moment of death. Coeval reports and the revisions of the opera show that a subject matter from the national history excited other expectations from the Czech musical community, and that the public desired to see an active and brave national hero. A suffering man torn by wishing revenge on one side and searching for harmony and love on the other was out of the horizon of the patriotic ideology.

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Abstract

In Gogol’s Dikanka stories cycle, the absence of a fundamental figure for the genre in question (the mother) is evident. Each story, in fact, features a “stepmother” or a surrogate of some sort, who turns out to be a demonic entity, if not a witch. This paper argues that for Gogol the Mother God, originally venerated as the main deity, assumes the form of Moist Mother Earth, forgotten by the modern Slavonic man as he increasingly distances himself from the collective (the “mir”). This process culminates in the Dikan’ka’s tale The Terrible Revenge, in which Gogol highlights the transition from the feminine to the male principle, that is to say from the Moist Mother Earth to the apocryphal God of the Ukrainian sung epic poem (“duma”). Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka tells of the dangerous path trodden by modern man, a path where he – in the empty space left by Moist Mother Earth – takes exclusively responsibility for the eponymous revenge.

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