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] Dobolyi E. , Dobos F-ne. Practical application of the reverse osmosis principle in water management , (in Hungarian) Hidrológiai közlöny , Vol. 58 , No. 3 , 1978 , pp. 4 – 130 . [5

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During our research concentrations of quality wines were investigated by membrane separation on nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. The practicability of the process was examined by experimental design in our laboratory experiments. The effects of the operating parameters on the efficiency of the methods were analyzed, from which the conclusion was drawn that the sugar content of the wines affects the filtrate capacity considerably. This phenomenon was attributed to the resistance appearing during the process. This resistance is the osmotic pressure which is faced with the driving force. By the mathematical modeling of the process - building up experimental and empirical relations - the answer for the practical implementing was searched for. Our concrete model concentrates on the connection between the changing of the osmotic pressure and the retained molecules by the membrane. Monitoring of this connection is a primary criterion when planning the optimal development of the process.

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Conrad, K.M., Mast, M.G., Ball, H.R., Froning, G. & MacNeil, J.H. (1993): Concentration of liquid egg white by vacuum evaporation and reverse osmosis. J. Fd Sci. , 58 , 1017–1020. MacNeil J

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Zs. Molnár, Sz. Bánvölgyi, Á. Kozák, I. Kiss, E. Békássy-Molnár, and Gy. Vatai

Gurak, P.D., Cabral, L.M.C., Rocha-Leăo, M.H.M., Matta, V.M. & Freitas, S.P. (2010): Quality evaluation of grape juice concentrated by reverse osmosis. J. Fd Engng , 96 , 421–426. Freitas S

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108 334 340 Vincze, I., Bányai-Stefanovits, É. & Vatai, Gy. (2006): Using nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for the concentration of

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The problem of wastewater with high content of salt is a frequent problem for the environmental authorities, because the existing municipal and industrial wastewater treatments are incapable to remove effectively inorganic compounds. In this paper an attempt was made to report new results with reverse osmosis (RO) and nano-filtration (NF) membranes to remove salts from fermentation wastewater.The basic target of the experiments was to find an industrial membrane, which can separate salts from fermentation wastewater with a high efficiency and the concentration of the clean water should satisfy the environmental regulation: salt concentration ≤ 2500 mg/L and COD concentration ≤ 1200 mgO 2 /L. RO process exhibited good salt rejection and effective removal of organics. The other aim of this study was to model the osmotic pressure and permeate flux in the wastewater using basic expressions, like van’t Hoff law and Rautenbach equations. The combination of the above models with experiment based constants gave a good tool for modeling salty wastewater.

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References [1] Arun Subramani , Joseph G. Jacangelo , “ Treatment technologies for reverse osmosis concentrate volume minimization: A

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, Sz., Beszédes, S., László, Zs., Szabó, G., Hodúr, C. (2010) Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis of pig manure: Comparison of results from vibratory and classical modules. Desalination and Water Treatment 14(1–3): 233

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Sz. Bánvölgyi, T. Vatai, Zs. Molnár, I. Kiss, Ž. Knez, Gy. Vatai, and M. Škerget

. & Ibarz , A. ( 2012 ): Ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis for clarification and concentration of fruit juices at pilot plant scale . LWT –Food Sci. Technol. , 46 , 189 – 195

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Cecilia Hodúr, Szabolcs Kertész, József Csanádi, Gábor Szabó, and Zsuzsanna László

Takács, L., Vatai, Gy. (2006) Osmotic Pressure Modeling of White Wine Diafiltration and Red Wine Concentration by Reverse Osmosis Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences 2:(1) December 2006 DOI: 10.1556/Progress.2

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