The musical sources and the contemporary press reports do not confirm the statement that
, the par excellence Hungarian national opera composed by Ferenc Erkel and first performed in 1861, was finished already in 1852 — a date that became current in the international musicological literature. The instrumentation workshop around Erkel which can be traced as a pendant of the Weimar workshop of Liszt, represents less the artistic weakness of the composer, rather a take-off point for the compositional invention. The method of the division between composition and instrumentation was disqualified from art music only at the time when the conception of the organic musical work and compositional process was widely established. From 1940 on, the original version of the work was substituted by a rewriting made in order to create a vernacular historicopolitical music drama modelled on the late Verdi, Mussorgsky or Borodin, a missing link in the Hungarian music history, retrospectively. The first edition of the authentic score of
being before publication and made by the author is based of a revised text from 1866 which is probably derived from Erkel and that was unknown till now.
StevensiaPoit. (Rubiaceace, Rondeletieae) is an endemic genus of the Hispaniola island in the West Indies containing nine species according to Liogier (1995). Within the framework of the Flora of the Greater Antilles project a new taxonomic revision has been made with amplified descriptions of the taxa and with the addition of two new species, Stevensiafarinosa spec. nov. and Stevensia farinosaspec. nov. and Stevensia trilobataspec. nov. A new analytic key for the genus is also carried out.
Several newly-discovered manuscripts of unpublished works by Ernő Dohnányi (1877–1960) and other documents in the University Library of Bratislava and the Slovak National Museum — Music Museum Bratislava refute the misconception that this city, the composer’s birthplace, is lacking in sources about him. These manuscripts from the estates of two dedicatees, the Archduchess Isabella and Mártha Rigele, offer fresh insights into Dohnányi’s compositional process, and particularly into the multiple revisions of his String Sextet, originally composed in 1893. Versions 1 and 2 of this Sextet, with geographically divergent manuscript locations in the British Library and at Florida State University, are compared here inasmuch as Dohnányi’s development into a mature composer is clearly demonstrable. The two manuscripts from the estate of the Archduchess Isabella, a set of parts reflecting all known revisions and an autograph transcription provide evidence to support this writer’s hypothesis that the score with title page dated 1896 is probably the final version. The Sonata stands as confirmation that by 1899 the composition had reached its final form in the mind of the composer. Excerpts from Dohnányi’s family letters cited here offer further insights into this period.
Authors:Ayla Rigouts Terryn, Isabelle S. Robert, Jim J. J. Ureel, Aline Remael, and Sabien Hanoulle
Translation revision (TR) is an important step in the translation workflow. However, translation revision competence (TRC) remains an ill-defined concept. This article addresses that gap by operationalizing TR and by presenting a theoretical TRC model. Subsequently, the article analyses and interprets the results of an empirical pilot study designed to test the presence of two TR subcompetences hypothesized by the TRC model, in an experimental group and a control group of 21 MA language students. The experimental group was given TR training whereas the control group was not. The two subcompetences that were tested using a pretest—posttest experimental design were declarative-procedural knowledge about TR and the procedural strategic revision subcompetence. Both groups of participants replied to questionnaires and performed controlled revision tasks, which were subjected to quantitative statistical analyses. This article provides a detailed analysis of the results and the causes of the limited progress. In addition, it discusses the lessons learnt for both TR training and further research.
Retranslations are a frequent object of study in Translation Studies. They can be used as data for a number of research problems, or retranslation can be studied as a phenomenon on its own. There are no large-scale surveys on retranslation, however, let alone surveys that would be coupled with in-depth case studies, no doubt due to the laboriousness and complexity of the task. Our own interest in the issue started from a small-scale project testing the so-called Retranslation Hypothesis, but gradually our research expanded into a wider range of questions. We have addressed three main areas: the extent and proportion of retranslation in Finland; the motives for and reception of retranslations (publishers, critics); and finally, what happens to a text when it is either retranslated or revised (textual analysis). For this purpose, we have compiled three different sets of data from the Finnish context. These sets consist of synchronic data (retranslations and their reviews from the year 2000), diachronic data (charting the retranslation history of classics shortlisted in 1999 and 1887) and case studies (by e.g. Victor Hugo, Nikolai Gogol, Astrid Lindgren and Juan Valera translated into Finnish). This paper presents an overview of the results of our investigation, argues for a need for a comprehensive treatment of retranslation as a phenomenon, and discusses the implications of textual analysis for the understanding of the fuzzy area between retranslation and revision. The cases presented include Hugo’s
Authors:F. Karavelioğullaryİ, M. Ekici, S. Çelik, B. Başer, M. Uzunhisarcİklİ, A. Ocak, M. Özbek, and B. Bani
A taxonomic revision of three
species occurring in Turkey is presented. It is determined that,
which is regarded as a synonym of
in Flora of Turkey is distributed in Turkey. Also this taxon is recorded to Flora Iranica. It is found that
is not distributed in Turkey. Descriptions of the taxa were reviewed, pollen features were given after the taxa. Ecological features of distribution areas of the species were fixed and their conservation status was re-evaluated.
The paper aims to investigate student translation processes from the second and third language (L2 and L3), with particular regard to self-revision. The authors report on a study conducted to test the following two hypotheses: a) The distribution of student self-revisions, i.e. in which phase of the process they occur, is primarily related to individual working habits and not to language pair; b) The type and quantity of self-revisions primarily depend on whether the student is working from his/her L2 or L3. The study is designed as a series of experiments involving students translating comparable texts (two sections of the same text produced by an EU institution of which multiple language versions exist) from their L2 (English) and L3 (Swedish) into their first language (Croatian). The processes are recorded with the help of a keystroke logging program (Translog). The type, number and distribution of self-revisions are analyzed. The findings suggest that the distribution of revisions over the phases may indeed be related to individual subjects’ habitual behavior. With regard to the expectation that the type and quantity of self-revisions primarily depend on SL competence, the findings do not provide a consistent picture.
This project investigates two young professional translators’ problem-solving and decision-making behaviour during revision processes. It sets out to qualitatively describe the complexity of interplay involved in problem-solving and decision-making in translation revision, using think-aloud protocols as a research method. The data I elicited suggest that, for a revision point to occur, the translator first has to find a translation problem. However, the translation problem itself can evolve over time in the revision process in either a divergent or convergent manner. In other words, a single translation problem can be subdivided into several smaller problems and be tackled individually. Meanwhile, the translator may choose to merge several problems into a single problem that requires a holistic problem-solving approach. In terms of decision-making, the translator does not generally verbalise his/her reasons for choosing a translation solution. Nevertheless, s/he has an appropriateness threshold in mind, so that s/he can judge and compare the appropriateness of translation choices and make a decision accordingly. A tentative model of end-revision problem-solving and decision-making has been produced to summarise the findings of this project.
Two separate publications of C. P. E. Bach’s keyboard works appeared during the 19th century in the edition of Hans von Bülow: Sechs Sonaten (Leipzig, Peters, 1862), and the ‘Concertvortrag’ version of a rondo movement in the Anthologie Classique (Berlin, Schlesinger, 1860). Both editions alter the original text heavily, by dressing it up in the raiment of the flamboyant and virtuosic style of their own time. The long Preface to the Sechs Sonaten, in which Bülow explains the necessity of a ‘revision’, but, at the same time, betrays his uneasiness about his procedures, is an extremely important document of the historical/artistic thinking of Bülow’s generation.Bülow’s revisions are examined in the following aspects of the music: enrichment of the keyboard texture; change of harmony; obliteration of the fantasia character; performance indications and tempo changes; abolishment of the aposiopesis. Differences between the original and the revised text are illustrated with several musical examples.Although Bülow was a true son of the nineteenth century, his attitude to textual fidelity was stricter than that of his colleagues. His troubled conscience about the revision of the C. P. E. Bach sonatas shows a fundamentally ethical principle, independent from the artistic disposition of his age.