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decreased reward value compared to when they were initially instilled, a process described as reward de valuation ( Miller, Shenhav, & Ludvig, 2019 ). In other words, a person may persist in carrying out a maladaptive eating behavior out of habit, simply

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to assign reward values to behavioral choices, based on the perceived or expected outcomes of the behavior ( Wallis, 2007 ). The ACC is suggested to encode a reward prediction error (the difference between a predicted reward and an actual outcome

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Complementary neurophysiological recordings in macaques and functional neuroimaging in humans show that the primary taste cortex in the rostral insula and adjoining frontal operculum provides separate and combined representations of the taste, temperature, and texture (including viscosity and fat texture) of food in the mouth independently of hunger and thus of reward value and pleasantness. One synapse on, in the orbitofrontal cortex, these sensory inputs are for some neurons combined by learning with olfactory and visual inputs. Different neurons respond to different combinations, providing a rich representation of the sensory properties of food. The representation of taste and other food-related stimuli in the orbitofrontal cortex of macaques is found from its lateral border throughout area 13 to within 7 mm of the midline, and in humans the representation of food-related and other pleasant stimuli is found particularly in the medial orbitofrontal cortex. In the orbitofrontal cortex, feeding to satiety with one food decreases the responses of these neurons to that food, but not to other foods, showing that sensory-specific satiety is computed in the primate (including human) orbitofrontal cortex. Consistently, activation of parts of the human orbitofrontal cortex correlates with subjective ratings of the pleasantness of the taste and smell of food. Cognitive factors, such as a word label presented with an odour, influence the pleasantness of the odour, and the activation produced by the odour in the orbitofrontal cortex. Food intake is thus controlled by building a multimodal representation of the sensory properties of food in the orbitofrontal cortex, and gating this representation by satiety signals to produce a representation of the pleasantness or reward value of food which drives food intake. A neuronal representation of taste is also found in the pregenual cingulate cortex, which receives inputs from the orbitofrontal cortex, and in humans many pleasant stimuli activate the pregenual cingulate cortex, pointing towards this as an important area in motivation and emotion.

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Evolution, Mind and Behaviour
Authors:
Andrew Watt
,
Deiniol Skillicorn
,
Jediah Clark
,
Rachel Evans
,
Paul Hewlett
, and
Nick Perham

References Aharon , I. , Etcoff , N. , Ariely , D. , Chabris , C. F. , O’Connor , E. , & Breiter , H. C. ( 2001 ). Beautiful faces have variable reward value: fMRI and behavioural evidence . Neuron , 32 , 537 – 551

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Afework Tsegaye
,
Joachim Bjørne
,
Anita Winther
,
Gyöngyi Kökönyei
,
Renáta Cserjési
, and
H.N. Alexander Logemann

words, it may be expected that higher BMI is associated with reduced disengagement of attention from attended loci and/or stimuli that have reward value. In addition, previous studies suggest that rewards are processed differently in the brain (and

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reward value coding ( Sescousse et al., 2010 ) as 8 mm spheres centered around the following coordinates: x = −30, y = 51, z = 0 (anterior OFC left); x = 33, y = 51, z = 0 (anterior OFC right); x = −30, y = 33, z = −15 (posterior OFC

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C. D. Frith R. J. Dolan U. Frith 2001 Reward value of attractiveness and gaze

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observational expected reward values ( Aquino et al., 2020 ). Interactions between the vmPFC and amygdala are critical for reward anticipation, and an alteration in this function can lead to an inability to wait for rewards or impulsivity ( Churchwell, Morris

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.pone.0107795 . 10.1371/journal.pone.0107795 Klein , S. , Kruse , O. , Markert , C. , Tapia León , I. , Strahler , J. , & Stark , R. ( 2020 ). Subjective reward value of visual sexual stimuli is coded in human striatum and orbitofrontal cortex

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Natasha Figueiredo
,
Junko Kose
,
Bernard Srour
,
Chantal Julia
,
Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot
,
Sandrine Péneau
,
Benjamin Allès
,
Indira Paz Graniel
,
Eloi Chazelas
,
Mélanie Deschasaux-Tanguy
,
Charlotte Debras
,
Serge Hercberg
,
Pilar Galan
,
Carlos A. Monteiro
,
Mathilde Touvier
, and
Valentina A. Andreeva

compared to healthy controls ( Klein, Boudreau, Devlin, & Walsh, 2006 ; Schebendach et al., 2017 ). An enhanced reward value of sweet taste among those with AN binge/purge type was reported, suggesting that typical food avoidance seen in AN could be

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