The paper examines the meaning of “sign inferences”. First the reader will be reminded that sign inferences were used in all philosophical schools, but the meaning of “sign inference” is different in the various schools. After examining Quintilianus’ text one can come to the conclusion that he spoke of sign inferences in terms of the Aristotelian logic. In Aristotelian logic sign inferences were used to the effect of conviction, but, from point of view of logic, they were not valid. Thus in rhetoric Aristotle intentionally admitted invalid proofs as “rhetoric arguments”.
Aristotle refers to enthymemes both in his Organon and Rhetoric. The comparison of the various passages leaves open some questions about the exact meaning of enthymemes. The problem becomes more complicated if one compares enthymemes with syllogisms described in the
. Some enthymemes seem to be identical with the
syllogisms of the
, while some others seem to be identical with the
described in the
. Our confusion is increased by Anaximenes. He tries to define the exact meaning of various kinds of rhetoric proofs, nut his text is far from being unambiguous. At any rate he creates a new system of rhetoric proofs as compared with Aristotle.
Because of the widespread use of citations in evaluation, we tend to think of them primarily as a form of colleague recognition. This interpretation neglects rhetorical factors that shape patterns of citations. After reviewing sociological theories of citation, this paper argues that we should think of citations first as rhetoric and second as reward. Some implications of this view for quantitative modeling of the citation process are drawn.
This paper will
analyze Eisenhower's policy towards Eastern Europe in general and towards
Hungary in particular from the perspective of the gaping gulf between
high-minded rhetoric and the political realities of the Cold War and the
nuclear arms race. While the Eisenhower Administration sounded the
high-faluting rhetoric of “liberation of captive peoples”from communism and
engaged in the short-lived effort to launch a “Volunteer Freedom Corps”to
undermine communism in Eastern Europe, the political reality was that uprisings
against communism were not supported in East Germany in 1953, neither in Poland
and Hungary in 1956. The Cold War regimes in Central Europe, along with the
establishment of deterrence strategy, made the cautious Eisenhower
administration not dare actively support rebellions in Eastern Europe. The
price of an escalation of conflict towards nuclear war was deemed too
dangerous; no direct interventions were launched in the Soviet sphere of
influence. The price the Eisenhower administration also had to pay was a loss
of trust among the “captive peoples”. Eisenhower's rhetoric was revealed to be
This paper examines the iconolographical origin of Johannes Sambucus’ emblem dedicated to Carlo Sigonio, which – according to its title – displays the difference between grammar, dialectics, rhetoric and history. I focus on the central female figure whose innocent nudity represents the truth and whose connection with the ideal historiography standing – balancing together with Dialectics and Rhetoric – on the head of the young virgin Grammar. The special relationship between History and naked truth also defines its symbolic connection with the costumes of the other two figures: Dialectics in rough working clothes and Rhetoric in her long luxury dress. Three symbolic animals also belong to the three female figures: a sphinx to Dialectics, a chimera to Rhetoric and a winged dog to History. Contextual examination of the emblem reveals the possible source of the strange winged dog symbol is Plutarch’s short story of Osiris and Isis. In addition, the paper draws attention to an ironic twist of History in connection with Carlo Sigonio that shows that its nudity is not always so innocent.
narrator of Prévost abbé's "Histoire d'une Grecque moderne" tells the
story of his relationship with a beautiful Greek woman. The relation starts
with a dialogue realized in a seraglio and this type of reported communication
will dominate the whole narration. Most of these dialogues take place as part
of a persuasion process: the actors try to persuade each other, and on his
turn, the narrator tries to persuade the reader. The letter - the written
communication par excellence - substitutes the dialogue between the actors only
once, at a crucial moment of the story. This situation emphasizes one of the
central problems raised by the novel: the failure of self-expression and mutual
The paper discusses the strategies and the rhetorical elements of the Norwegian Inner Mission during a period of political and cultural conflict the 1920’s and 1930’s.Special attentions paid to understanding the ambivalence between premodern values and modern strategies as they were expressed by one of the leaders of one of the inner mission organisations, professor of theology Ole Hallesby (1879 –1961).In his th nking, the explicit aim of the nner mission activities was the rechristianization of Norway, the means were actions organised according to the modern soc ety, but the cultural and soc al ideal was the non-secularzed, premodern Norway – as opposed to urban pluralism. Probably, this ambivalence made the inner mission strategy a political failure.
Eustathios, the illustrious scholar and clergyman of the 12th century AD, wrote a commentary to Pindar’s epinician odes, from which only the proem survives. Eustathios treatment of the lyric poet, his ideas and criteria of literary criticism have not been re-assessed since Kambylis’ interpretation and text edition (1991). The aim of this paper is to supply this re-evaluation. Besides, a new Homeric allusion and some evidence for Eustathios’ productive imitation of Pindar’s style are dealt with.