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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: K.G. Mandal, K. Kannan, A.K. Thakur, D.K. Kundu, P.S. Brahmanand and A. Kumar

Three-year (2007/2008–2009/2010) field experiment was conducted at the Directorate of Water Management Research Farm under Deras command in Odisha, India to assess the crop yield, irrigation water use efficiency (WUE), sustainable yield index (SYI), land utilization index (LUI) and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) for dominant rice systems, viz. rice-maize-rice, rice-cowpea-rice, rice-sunflower-rice, rice-tomato-okra and rice-fallow-rice. Results revealed that crop yield, in terms of total system productivity (TSP) increased by 273, 113, 106 and 58% in rice-tomato-okra, rice-sunflower-rice, rice-maize-rice and rice-cowpea-rice, respectively, when compared to rice-fallow-rice. Irrigation WUE was 49–414% greater in rice-based diversified systems than the existing rice-fallow-rice (2.98 kg ha−1 mm−1). The SYI ranged from 0.65 to 0.75 indicating greater sustainability of the systems. Three crops in a sequence resulted in greater LUI and production efficiency compared to rice-fallow-rice. The gross economic return and benefit-cost ratio was in the order: rice-tomato-okra > rice-maize-rice > rice-sunflower-rice > rice-cowpea-rice > rice-fallow-rice. The SOC storage ranged from 40.55 Mg ha−1 in rice-fallow-rice to 46.23 Mg ha−1 in rice-maize-rice system. The other systems had also very close values of SOC storage with the rice-maize-rice system; there was a positive change of SOC (7.20 to 12.52 Mg ha−1) for every system, with highest in rice-maize-rice system and the lowest in rice-fallow-rice. It is concluded that the appropriate rice-based system would be rice-tomato-okra followed by rice-maize-rice, rice-sunflower-rice and rice-cowpea-rice. Rice-fallow-rice is not advisable because of its lower productivity, lower LUI and economic return.

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Field experiments were carried out for 3 years to assess the efficacy of organic manures (Sesbania, Leucaena, cowpea, mungbean, wheat straw and FYM) in enhancing the productivity of rice and in supplying Fe. Green manuring with Sesbania gave the highest rice yield, whereas the lowest yield was recorded with wheat straw incorporation. The concentration and uptake of Fe by rice was significantly higher with organic manures. The Fe status of the soil after 3 crops of rice declined from the initial value, but the decline was least with FYM, followed by green manures. The application of organic manures is a good source for a sustained supply of Fe in soil.

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This study was to determine the gene expression pattern and phenotypic change of Cheongcheong, Nagdong, TN1, and 8 different pedigrees of the CNDH population when WBPH infestation initiated at the reproductive stage of the crop. WBPH infested plants generally showed higher expression level of defense genes compared with the uninfected plants. LOX transcriptional levels in Nagdong and CNDH42-1 did not increase after WBPH feeding at all-time course. Chlorophyll content declined in infested plants compared to their controls, but still CNDH3, CNDH14-2, and CNDH65 were healthier. Heavy and extensive WBPH feeding affected rice yield and grain quality although the infestation started at the reproductive stage.

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Abstract  

Relation between available phosphorus in 6 types of paddy soil in, Human Province and its uptake by rices was studied by32P tracing. The result indicated that the P uptake by rices varied with available P content in the paddy soils. When the content was high, the rice absorbed more P nutrient from the soil and decreased the P uptake from the P fertilizer, which showed a poor contribution of the P fertilizer to the rice yield increase, and vice versa. The recovery of the P fertilizer varied with the soil types. Ranked the first was in paddy soils derived from lacustrine deposite but little rice yield increased. While in paddy soils derived from limestone, the yield greatly increased although the recovery of P fertilizer was the lowest. Rice absorbed P nutrient during its whole growth duration. No matter the different uptake amount due to the P supply by the different soils, rice plant generally had the greatest P nutrient uptake from tillering stage to elongation stage, and along with the rise of the rices dry matter, amount of P uptake was gradually increased but the P content in unit dry matter was tended to decrease.

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Milled rice from nine aromatic cultivars was evaluated for physicochemical, cooking, and antioxidant properties. Physical parameters measured were milling outrun, head rice yield (HRY), and appearance (size and shape). Cooking time, water uptake ratio and elongation ratio were determined to study their cooking quality. Chemical parameters included were amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), gel consistency (GC) and alkali spreading value (ASV). Total phenolic content (TPC) was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were used to study their antioxidant activity. This study revealed all rice cultivars, except Basmoti-370 and Gopalbhog, showed HRY. Besides, all rice cultivars displayed high protein content. Significant variations (P<0.05) were found in TPC and the antioxidant activities of the rice cultivars. The correlation coefficient between the TPC and the antioxidant activities was strong and statistically significant (P<0.05).

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Global warming is rising as a serious concern affecting agricultural production worldwide. Rice is a staple food crop and the threshold temperature for its pollination is 35 °C. A rise in temperature above this value can cause pollen sterility and may severely affect fertilization. Therefore, a study emphasizing the rise in temperature with respect to pollen viability was conducted with eleven rice genotypes during kharif seasons of 2010 and 2011 in indigenous field conditions. Increasing mean temperature by 12 °C at full flowering was found to severely affect the spikelet attributes of the crop. All genotypes showed spikelet sterility above 90% during both seasons. The study indicated that increased temperature may limit rice yield by affecting spikelet fertility and grain filling. The net reduction in grain yield was 30.4% and 27.6% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. A clear reduction in pollen size under high temperature was shown by scanning electron microscopy.

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The main objective of this work was to study the importance of applying gypsum and sulphur to the soil to inhibit the hazardous effects of soil salinity stress on the vegetative growth and yield quantity and quality of rice plants (Oriza sativa L., cv. Sakha 101) grown on a salt-affected soil irrigated with low quality water from the El-Salam (El-Shikh Zaid) Canal. Two field experiments were carried out during two successive seasons (2011, 2012) at Sahl El-Tina plain, village 4, Gilbana town. Gypsum was applied at a rate of 10.7 Mg ha−1)1 while sulphur was added in two forms, as elemental sulphur at a rate of 4.8 Mg ha−1) or as sulphuric acid at a rate of 1190 L ha−1. The results could be summarized as follows: The highest values of rice yield and its attributes as well as nutrient content and uptake were obtained after treatment with sulphuric acid. The treatment effects decreased in the order: sulphuric acid > sulphur > gypsum > control. The highest proline content (21.3 μmol g−1) was recorded after the gypsum treatment.

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References Agarwal , G.C. , Sidhu , A.S. , Singh , N.T. 1995 . Effect of the interaction of transplanting rate, irrigation schedule and N on rice yield

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amendment on rice yield and soil fertility status. Madras Agric. J. , 86 , 572–577. Masilamani P. Effect of distillery effluent and organic amendment on rice yield and soil

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. Chaudhry, T. M. A., Khanif, Y. M. 2001: Evaluation of effects of nitrogen and magnesium fertilization on rice yield and fertilizer nitrogen efficiency using 15 N tracer technique. J. Plant Nutr. , 24 , 855-871. Evaluation of

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