cemeteries is furnished with weapons (bow and arrow, lance-heads, sabres/swords, axes) and multi-part belt sets, which were also part of the Avar warrior’s equipment. Some graves also include horse-riding equipment, as well as partial or even complete horse
The author of this paper gives new interpretations of two Greek equestrian termini,
, based on the relevant passages of Xenophon’s
and arguments taken from modern hippological practice. Contrary to prevailing opinions,
must mean riding figures in general, and
refers to the disappearance of the cup from permanent teeth.
We used multivariate analysis to model boreal forest stand structure and dynamics at Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba based on data from 202 sampled stands. Eight forest stand-types were recognized based on canopy composition: black spruce on peat substrates, jack pine - black spruce, bur oak, eastern deciduous (green ash - American elm - Manitoba maple), balsam fir, trembling aspen - paper birch - mountain maple, trembling aspen - balsam poplar, and white spruce. The first four stand-types occur in edaphically distinct environments, while the four remaining boreal mixedwood stand-types occur in edaphically similar environments. We found that the composition and abundance of advance regeneration were best predicted by current canopy composition (redundancy = 54.4%); this reflects both the limited dispersal of conifer seeds and the strong vegetative reproductive capacity of hardwoods. Biotically-controlled site factors such as bareground, herb and shrub cover, ungulate browsing intensity, and stand age were also reasonably good predictors f advance regeneration (redundancy = 31.7%). Edaphic variables such as soil pH, conductivity, particle size, organic horizon depth and slope proved to be poor predictors of advance regeneration, however (redundancy = 18.1%). Size-class ordination indicated that many stand-types have relatively short successional trajectories, suggesting limited change in forest canopy composition over time. There are two exceptions: in the jack pine - black spruce stand-type, black spruce will increase over time, and in the trembling aspen - paper birch - mountain maple stand-type, eastern deciduous species (green ash, American elm, Manitoba maple, and bur oak) are forecast to become increasingly dominant. We also describe a synoptic model of mixedwood boreal forest stand dynamics for the Riding Mountain area. The model includes a number of factors that we consider to be critical determinants of forest dynamics, such as seed source availability, small and large-scale disturbances, species life-history characteristics, and environmental gradients. Our succession model is more similar those described for eastern than western Canada, which may reflect the lower frequency of catastrophic fires in the Riding Mountain area compared to boreal forests further west. Our model emphasizes that successional trajectories do not converge towards a single self-perpetuating "climax". Instead, successional vectors may diverge, converge or remain cyclical, and multiple potential pathways are possible for each stand-type. Our results also illustrate that species assemblages, and the propensity for canopy change in the absence of fire, are governed by the cumulative and synergistic effects of climate, topography, disturbance frequency, size and intensity, edaphic conditions, and the proximity of parental seed sources. Fire suppression in the southern boreal forest has resulted in a paradigm shift in disturbance regime, from large, synchronous catastrophic fires to small-scale, asynchronous gap formation. A major challenge for boreal forest ecologists is to determine the long-term consequences of this paradigm shift on the composition, structure and health of boreal forest stands and landscapes.
Why do human beings show such a strong preference for thinking in narratives? From a computational perspective, this method of generating inferences appears to be exorbitantly wasteful. Using students' responses to the fairy tale of Little Red Riding Hood, I argue that narrative comprehension requires the construction of idiosyncratic imagery, but that the cognitive yield is structural and shared. This peculiar method of information processing, I suggest, is the outcome of evolutionary path-dependence. The narrative mode of construal is an expert system taking its input from the display of conscious experience, but producing results that are largely unconscious. Drawing on examples from rhesus play, I argue that the core features of narrative thinking have biological roots in strategy formation. Finally, I return to the fairy tale to illustrate the operation of a series of peculiar design features characteristic of human narrative thinking.
This work is based on the
museological classification of the saddle collection of the Museum of
Ethnography in Budapest. The collection consists of cca 150 saddles, two-thirds
of which comes from Hungarian speaking areas, one third from Northern Africa, Asia
and Finland. The author describes the development of saddles and their
different types by analysing the objects and professional literature. Making
and ornamenting saddles, harnesses and equipments of the saddles for different
purposes are described here. The most famous Hungarian saddle making centre and
the most widespread Hungarian type, the Tiszafüred type are highlighted.
Cultural history of this Eastern heritage from the ancient history of
Hungarians upto the present is presented. It also refers to the significant
traditions of Hungarian riding culture (Hungarian hussar) and to the new areas
and possibilities of current saddle usage (sport, turism, recreation).
The “Three Magi stove” in the Royal Palace of Buda
. The study describes “ The Three Magi stove” built in the royal palace in Buda. It was named after the topic of the stove tiles: the Magi riding on horses one by one at the bottom (only the rich Swiss find material implies it) and the scene of the Annunciation on two tiles. The Magi greeting the Child can separately be found on the upper part of the stove (only a single tile has been preserved and a fragment of another one), together with Maria sitting with the Child (fragment). The tiles of Apostle St Mathias and a royal figure could be found above them. The characteristic technical novelty of the stove was the use of white tin glaze and also blue tin glaze on certain tiles, while the tin glaze was yellow and green on the rest of the tiles. According to two preserved coat-of-arms, those of Bavaria-Pfalz and Württemberg, we suppose that the stove was ordered by a Bavarian prince from a master from Switzerland or Bavaria.
Landscape complexity in the boreal forest is a function of physiographic complexity (spatial processes) and post-fire successional (temporal) processes operating across scales. In this study we examine the role of succession and topographic complexity in determining the landscape complexity of Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba, Canada. Landscape complexity is assessed by using multifractal analysis to quantify landscape patterns from Landsat TM imagery. To determine whether complexity changes with age, . young. sites (post-fire stand ages = 11 and 30 years) were matched with adjacent . old. sites (post-fire stand ages ≯ 95 years). The influence of physiography on landscape complexity is examined by comparing sites having . simple. and . complex. physiographies (as determined by fractal surface analysis). The scaling properties of landscape complexity are determined by calculating the multifractal spectrum (Dq) for each site. Landscape complexity increases during early succession; multifractal profiles of 11 year old sites are lower than those of adjacent older stands. However, the multifractal profiles of 30 year old and adjacent older stands are indistinguishable, suggesting that change in landscape complexity occurs within 30 years following fire. Physiographically . complex. sites have consistently greater landscape complexity than adjacent . simple. sites. We conclude that landscape complexity increases over time as succession proceeds, and in space along a gradient from . simple. to . complex. physiographies. It follows that landscape complexity is lowest in early-successional, physiographically . simple. sites and highest in late-successional, physiographically . complex. sites.
The article is based on the online database “Estonian Droodles” (available at
, containing 7,200 droodles collected from 1963 up to the present), which includes a number of longer visual narrative riddles (about 430 text variants, 79 types, i.e. different droodles). The question component of the so-called ‘narrative droodles’, or ‘droodle tales’, is a verbally transmitted tale visualised by means of a pictorial image. The performer of a droodle sketches the image during narration and the story ends with a punch line question.Among narrative droodles there are variants built on a specific scene and plot, which may even resemble a miniature fairy tale. The extremely condensed plot centres on only one or two characters. For the purpose of distancing from reality, a princess, king, prince, witch, Little Red Riding Hood, etc. may be chosen as protagonists; the more popular characters are represented as the following character pairs — girl/boy, brother/sister, woman/man, grandmother/grandfather. The narrative droodles are not comparable to the majority of fairy tales in length, but the fast pace of modern life seems to favour the use of such illustrated narrative riddles. An analysis of the structural composition and function of narrative droodles of this type reveals the shared common features with the structure and function of fairy tales.