Authors:Marianna Dávid, Hajna Losonczy, Miklós Udvardy, Zoltán Boda, György Blaskó, Attila Tar, and György Pfliegler
Education Program Book, 2006, 462–467.
Rocha, A. T., Paiva, E. F., Lichtenstein, A. és mtsai:
Riskassessment algorithm and recommendations for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in medical patients. Vasc
Mycotoxins are natural compounds that may cause various adverse toxicological manifestations in humans and animals. The nature, the severity and scope of their adverse activity are varied and in general, even in small amount they have potent carcinogenic, genotoxic effect and injure the immune system. In order to provide high level of health protection for consumers, the European Union has established strict regulatory limits, whose implementation is enforced.The EC (2001) Commission Regulation sets maximum levels for some mycotoxins in foodstuffs: for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins, T-2 and HT-2 toxins. Particular product categories are regulated under specific decisions ordaining control of imported consignments at the point of entry. Due to the fact that only aflatoxins are addressed in the specific decisions, they are the mostly detected and notified mycotoxins in the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). The second most frequent group, Ochratoxin A is typically detected during internal EU market controls. Most RASFF notifications concern product categories falling under specific EU decisions, especially the Aflatoxin content of nuts and nut products. Significant amount of aflatoxins can be found also in dried fruits, spices and herbs.The article reviews and analyses the data available in rapid alert system concerning mycotoxins notification, and evaluates the usefulness of this information for risk assessment. The value of RASFF system is unquestionable and it fulfils its intended function included in its name. The system is a significant source of valuable information, but for risk assessment purposes, other additional information is needed. It could be used most effectively for risk assessment, if it was to provide data on the ratio of all/tested/positive lots and if the authorities provided not only the positive results, but also the exact mycotoxins level of every analysed sample.
Authors:J.-M. Lim, J.-H. Lee, Y.-S. Chung, J.-H. Moon, and K.-H. Kim
In order to study the effects of air pollution, about 1,300 samples of airborne particulate matter (APM) were collected at
suburban and industrial sites, in Daejeon, Korea from 1998 to 2006. The concentrations of carcinogenic (As and Cr) and non-carcinogenic
metals (Al, Mn, and Zn) were determined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These long-term metal concentration
data were applied to a risk assessment of inhalation exposure using Monte Carlo analysis (MCA).
Authors:Qingsheng Wang, William Rogers, and M. Mannan
Reaction hazards remain the most serious concern in the chemical industry in spite of continual research and attention devoted
to them. Many commercial calorimeters, such as the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), are useful screening tools for
thermal risk assessment of reaction hazards. Some important thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, including onset temperature,
adiabatic time to maximum rate, and maximum adiabatic temperature, were analyzed in this paper. A kinetic-based model under
adiabatic conditions was developed, and the adiabatic time to maximum rate was estimated. Correlations between onset temperature
(To) and activation energy (Ea), and between onset temperature (To) and adiabatic time to maximum rate (TMRad) were found, and were illustrated by some examples from the previous literature. Based on the heat of reaction and the adiabatic
time to maximum rate, a thermal risk index (TRI) was defined to represent the thermal risk of a specific reaction hazard relative
to di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP), and the results of this index were consistent with those of the reaction hazard index (RHI). The correlations
and the thermal risk index method could be used as a preliminary thermal risk assessment for reaction hazards.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known marker of inflammation and infection in clinical practice. This study is designed to evaluate CRP levels in different phases of menstrual cycle, which might end up with misleading conclusions especially when used for cardiovascular risk assessment.
Twenty-seven women were eligible for the cross-sectional study. Venous blood samples from each participant were collected twice during the menstrual cycle. The first sampling was held at 2nd to 5th days of the menstrual cycle for FSH, estradiol, CRP, and sedimentation, and the second was done at 21st to 24th days of the menstrual cycle for measurement of progesterone, CRP, and sedimentation values.
CRP values were significantly higher in the early follicular phase compared to luteal phase (1.8 mg/L [0.3–7.67] vs. 0.7 mg/L [0.1–8.3], p < 0.001, respectively). In both phases of the menstrual cycle, sedimentation rate was similar (12.1 ± 6.7 vs. 12.3 ± 7.7; p = 0.717, respectively).
CRP levels in early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (menstruation) are significantly higher than CRP levels in luteal phase of the same cycle. In reproductive age women, detection of CRP for cardiovascular risk assessment during menstruation might not be appropriate.