Evolutionary theory based research shows that women and men may differ in their responses to sexual and emotional infidelity. The present research sought to determine how the mate value characteristics of rivals affect the levels of emotional reaction men and women experience with these types of infidelity. Women were expected to report higher levels of upset when their male partners committed infidelity with an attractive rather than an unattractive woman while men were expected to experience the most upset when their female partners committed sexual infidelity with a male rival regardless of the rival's financial status. The results were partially consistent with these hypotheses. Women were most upset by their partner's sexual infidelity regardless of the attractiveness of their female rival and more upset by their partner's emotional infidelity with an attractive woman. Men were most upset with their partner's commission of sexual infidelity regardless of the financial status of their male rival. These findings are discussed in terms of prior research examining sex differences in jealousy and intrasexual competition.
The consequences of Crassus’ invasion of Mesopotamia in 54–53 BCE were unanticipated and unintended; however, his disastrous failure shocked the Roman world and suddenly established the Parthians as a serious rival to Rome. Moreover, the shame the Romans felt after the Battle of Carrhae was considerable. The battle scarred the Roman psyche and severely damaged the Roman ego. This study synthesizes and investigates what became a vicious and virulent Roman literary tradition of anti-Crassus propaganda, examining how numerous Roman writers over the course of numerous centuries used the dead and disgraced Crassus as a convenient scapegoat to help explain Rome’s failure to dominate the East and subdue the Parthian rival. It demonstrates that these writers ignored the legitimate causes for the First Romano-Parthian War (56 BCE – 1 CE), which Crassus had inherited, and illustrates that the disaster at Carrhae became a popular moralizing lesson about the consequences of greed, impiety, and hubris.
The paper deals with the features and functions of Hera in the Homeric Hymns. The corpus preserves a very short and trivial hymn to her (h.Hom. 12), two nearly identical references to her sleep during the birth of Hermes in the two Hymns devoted to him (h.Merc. 8 and h.Hom. 18. 8) and other minimal allusions (h.Ap. 95 and 99, h.Ven. 40). Especially interesting is the leading role played by Hera in two mythical episodes narrated in the Hymns: the binding and subsequent liberation of the goddess by Hephaistos in the the fragmentary Hymn to Dionysos (number 1 of the corpus) and the birth of Typhoeus, which was conceived as an act of revenge against Zeus for giving birth Athena (h.Ap. 305ss.). On the other hand, the myth of the Hymn to Apollo (305–338) is revisited attending to some striking Hittite parallels concerning the relationship between the oath by Heaven and Earth and the birth of a monstrous rival of the king of gods.
Mating rivalry is not only limited to one's ingroup, but also outgroup members can be perceived as potential romantic competitors. In the present research, intergroup intrasexual competition (IIC) is defined as the extent to which individuals react negatively towards potential outgroup same-sex members in the context of mating competition. The authors present a scale developed to assess individual variation in IIC. The scale was administered to five student samples: 78 Dutch, 396 Dutch, 105 German, 306 Latvian and 96 Russian. Through a factor analysis, a long version of the scale was reduced to a 12-item version. A moderate test-retest correlation was established. IIC correlated positively with intrasexual competition, social dominance orientation, possessive jealousy and perceived vulnerability to disease, serving as indicators of convergent validity. As predicted, men scored overall higher than women on the IIC scale, but not in the samples where the participants came from a national minority group (Germans in the Netherlands and Russians in Latvia). Latvian male participants showed the highest level of IIC, followed by the Russians, the Dutch and the Germans.
Authors:Yu. Norseyev, D. Nhan, V. Khalkin, N. Huan and L. Vasaros
Electrophilic aromatic astatination of equimolar mixtures of benzene and its derivatives has been studied in acid homogeneous medium. It has been quantitatively estimated, on the basis of the Hammett equation, how the properties of substitutients influence the yield of reaction products.
Authors:Pablo Polo Polo, Jose Antonio Munoz-Reyes, Ana Maria Fernandez Tapia, Juan Enrique Wilson and Enrique Turiégano
thought to be the main mechanism of intrasexual competition ( Fisher and Cox 2009 ; Vaillancourt 2013 ). This competition mainly functions through the enhancement of one's own attractiveness, although women also may exclude rivals by derogating their
Authors:Edina Prondvai, Gábor Botfalvai, Koen Stein, Zoltán Szentesi and Attila Ősi
theropod eggshells reported to date, the thinness of which is only rivaled by the eggshells of the smallest avian eggs known from the Mesozoic record, such as those of enantiornithine birds ( Sabath 1991 ; Fernández et al. 2013 ; Kurochkin et al. 2013
On the basis of the Mycenaean documents written in Linear B, the official title da-mo-ko-ro (*damokoros) might have been the name for a high official of the royal palace whose task was to distribute the provisions among the people working for the king. Augewas damokoros mentioned on the tablet Ta 711 may be the same historical person as king Augewas of the Greek epic tradition who rivalled Neleus in the rule over Pylos.