Authors:H.Q. Zhao, L. Wang, J. Hong, X.Y. Zhao, X.H. Yu, L. Sheng, C.Z. Hang, Y. Zhao, A.A. Lin, W.H. Si, and F.S. Hong
Salt stress impaired Mn imbalance and resulted in accumulation of ROS, and caused oxidative stress to plants. However, very little is known about the oxidative damage of maize roots caused by exposure to a combination of both salt stress and Mn deprivation. Thus the main aim of this study was to determine the effects of a combination of salt stress and Mn deprivation on antioxidative defense system in maize roots. Maize plants were cultivated in Hoagland’s media. They were subjected to 80 mM NaCl administered in the Mn-present Hoagland’s or Mn-deficient Hoagland’s media for 14 days. The findings indicated that the growth and root activity of maize seedlings cultivated in a combination of both salt stress and Mn deprivation were significantly inhibited; the compatible solute accumulation, malondialdehyde, carbonyl, 8-OHdG, and ROS were higher than those of the individual salt stress or Mn deprivation as expected. Nevertheless, the antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, glutathione and thiol were lower than those of the individual salt stress or Mn deprivation. In view of the fact that salt stress impaired Mn nutrition of maize seedlings, the findings suggested that Mn deprivation at the cellular level may be a contributory factor to salt-induced oxidative stress and related oxidative damage of maize roots.
Authors:E. Sheval, Yu. Kazhura, Nina Poleshuk, Elena Lazareva, Elena Smirnova, Natalia Maximova, and V. Polyakov
The extensive use of herbicides in agriculture becomes an important factor in environmental pollution, especially in case of slowly degradable compounds. Some agents act on plants during a long period of time, even if a very low concentration of the herbicide remains in the soil. Here, we investigated the toxicological effect of a low concentration of dinitroaniline herbicide, trifluralin, on growing seedlings of
L. Trifluralin in concentration of 1 μg/ml inhibited root growth. The mitotic activity of meristematic cells was suppressed due to the retardation of metaphase progression — alteration that can be caused by cytoskeleton disorder. Using antibodies to α-tubulin, we investigated the distribution of microtubules in root meristem cells. During all stages of mitosis, the highly regular system of microtubular cytoskeleton observed in control cells was slightly disorganized. An examination of root structure using light and electron microscopy demonstrated that the cell walls did not form normally during cell division that led to the appearance of large multinucleated cells. Also, the premature (pathological) cell differentiation was induced by trifluralin. A part of differentiating cells showed intracellular structural changes that are consistent with programmed cell death. It seems that the development of alterations in trifluralin-treated roots was due to the microtubular cytoskeleton disorganization.
Waterlogging is one of the limiting factors influencing durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) production. In this paper we investigated the impact of seven waterlogging durations of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 40, and 60 days, imposed at 3-leaf and 4-leaf growth stages, on grain yield, grain yield components, straw and root dry weight and nitrogen concentration of grain, straw, and roots of two varieties of durum wheat. Grain yield of both varieties showed a significant reduction only when waterlogging was prolonged to more than 20 days, and 40-d and 60-d waterlogging reduced grain yield by 19% and 30%. Waterlogging depressed grain yield preventing many culms from producing spikes. It slowed down spikelet formation, consequently reducing the number of spikelets per spike, and reduced floret formation per spikelet, thus reducing the number of kernels per spike.
, X.R., Weeks, R.G., Shen, Q.R., Miller, A.J. 2006. Glutamine transport and feedback regulation of nitrate reductase activity in barley roots leads to changes in cytosolic nitrate pools. J. Exp. Bot. 57 :1333
Authors:Seda Sereflioglu, Burcu Seckin Dinler, and Eda Tasci
Gapinska , M. , Sklodowska , M. , Gabara , B. ( 2008 ) Effect of short- and long-term salinity on the activities of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in tomato roots . Acta Physiol. Plant. 30 , 11 – 18 .
This paper was first published in 2014: „Kicsi kis hősök”. Az ökofalu-mozgalom története és gyökerei. Kovász . 18(1–4):43–66.
Bates , Albert 2003 Ecovillage Roots (and Branches) . Communities Magazine
quantitative perspective of the cooperative relations between firms/industry and universities, describing the scientific roots of this field, commonly known as invisible colleges, through the use of bibliometric techniques. The study of invisible colleges