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Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) team discovered “the striking difference” in elevation between northern and southern hemispheres: “on Mars, the South Pole lying about six km higher than the North Pole, … the planet’s center of mass (is) 3 km north of its geometric center” (Physics Today, Oct 1999, p. 34). The same topography we have for solid Earth: low Arctic and high Antarctic with the same difference 5–7 km. No sound explanation of NS asymmetry was proposed: impact, planetary evolution, mantle convection … are rather artificial and vague. Meanwhile, NS asymmetry is inherent property of any freely rotating flexible celestial body as it follows from Kozyrev’s Causal or asymmetrical mechanics. Relations of Causal mechanics are supported by experimental study of vertical component of causal force by weight change measurement of rotated gyroscope and the study of its horizontal component by pendulum deflection measurement. Kozyrev made measurements at latitudes φ from 45° to 84° and proved that causal force is directed along Earth rotation axis: to the North for φ < 73° and to South for φ > 73°. The magnitude of causal force has order (1–5) × 10−5 of gravity force.

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Evgeniy Gennadievich Ivanov, Boris Ivanovich Gorbunov, Alexander Valentinovich Pasin, Boris Alexandrovich Aryutov and Alexei Ivanovich Novozhilov


Background: Acoustic cavitation is the creation and collapse of cavitation caverns in liquid in an acoustic field with a frequency of f = 1–3 kHz. The acoustic-cavitation processes manifest themselves during the collapse phase, with high pressure gradient continuum deformation, with a multiple transformation of energy forms. Liquid whistles are widely used to create an acoustic field of high power, but their efficiency only reaches 6–12%. We propose a liquid whistle in the form of a vortex cavitator (analogue of the Ranque vortex tube) with a rotating body in which a reduction in the input power is predicted.

Objective: Verification of feasibility of using a rotating body in a vortex cavitator with a rotation co-directional to the operational pump impeller.

Method: The method for identifying the feasibility of using a rotating body is to exclude body from the prototype and directly connect vortex chamber outlet with the pump inlet, which ensures the most complete preservation of co-directional vortex component of the flux entering the pump impeller.

Results: The results of experimental studies confirmed the validity of the hypothesis to a greater extent, since we achieved an increase in pressure at the outlet of the pump and a decrease in power at the drive relative to the original design.

Conclusions: The feasibility of designing the vortex cavitator body with rotation capability has been established, which will provide a reduction in input power of at least 30% by a rotation of the body, co-directional with the impeller.

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