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Introduction Bluetongue is an insect-borne viral disease affecting many domesticated and wild ruminants ( Lorca-Oró et al., 2014 ). Among the domesticated ruminants, sheep can be severely affected clinically, whereas goats, cattle and buffaloes

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Licitra, G., Hernandez, T.M., Van Soest, P.J. 1996. Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Sci. Technol. 57 :347–358. Soest P

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McDowell, L. R., Conrad, J. H. and Hembry, F. (1993): Mineral for Grazing Ruminants in Tropical Regions. Anim. Sci. Depart., University of Florida, Gainesville. Mineral for Grazing Ruminants in Tropical Regions

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Gülnur Kalaycı
,
Murat Kaplan
,
Buket Özkan
,
Kemal Pekmez
,
Abdurrahman Anıl Çağırgan
,
Ramazan Türkmen
, and
Serra Tunalıgil

Introduction Maedi-Visna (MV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE), also known as small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infections, are important and persistent viral infections with economic importance in sheep and goats ( Minguijón et al., 2015

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virus (SBV) was identified as the cause of the disease using next-generation sequencing-based metagenomic analysis ( Hoffmann et al., 2012 ). SBV predominantly infects domestic and wild ruminants, but antibodies were also detected in dogs and wild boars

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Vera Faigl
,
Nóra Vass
,
András Jávor
,
Margit Kulcsár
,
László Solti
,
Georgios Amiridis
, and
Sándor Cseh

Artificial insemination (AI) can undoubtedly be regarded as the oldest and most widely used assisted reproductive technique/technology (ART) applied in livestock production and it is one of the most important ARTs. The three cornerstones of its application are that it is simple, economical and successful. Artificial insemination offers many well-known benefits for producers. Fresh, fresh + diluted + chilled and frozen semen can be used for AI in small ruminants. To ensure its successful use, the AI technique must be selected on the basis of the type of semen planned to be used. This review paper gives a detailed overview of semen processing and its effects on semen quality, as well as of the AI techniques applied in small ruminants and their success rates.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Jéssica Aline Withoeft
,
Leonardo Silva Da Costa
,
Lucas Marian
,
Letícia Ferreira Baumbach
,
Juliana Do Canto Olegário
,
Luiz Cláudio Miletti
,
Cláudio Wageck Canal
, and
Renata Assis Casagrande

′)/(5′-GYCTCTGCSRCACCCTATCAGG-3′) amplifying a product of 118 bp of the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) of ruminant pestiviruses ( Weber et al., 2014 ). Also, refrigerated spleen, thymus and liver were submitted to RT-PCR for bluetongue virus, with the modified primers BTV IVI

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In order to examine the effect of exogenous melatonin on selected biochemical variables of the blood in ruminants, dairy cows were given the pineal gland hormone in the dose of 0.1 mg/kg body weight. One and four hours after melatonin administration blood samples were collected from the cows in the control and the treated group in order to determine the levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, as well as the activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase. The pineal gland hormone caused a significant increase in the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides, slight increases in glucose and insulin levels, and a significant decrease in the concentration of free fatty acids. Melatonin did not exert an effect on the activity of liver enzymes.

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Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are spread throughout the world, including Slovenia, where the first evidence of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection was found in 1996. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular and genetic characteristics of SRLV infection in Slovenia in order to classify our strains in relation to other known SRLV strains worldwide as well as to establish molecular techniques in concordance with serology. In this study, 340 goats and sheep were tested. Serological examination revealed that 57% of the goats and only 14% of the sheep were seropositive. The results of this study also show that the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used in this study is less reliable than ELISA, with only 60.6% of the seropositive animals being PCR positive. Thirty-eight nucleotide sequences of the gag region encoding the matrix protein were determined and compared to sequences derived from the GenBank, revealing that Slovenian SRLV strains belong to sequence groups A and B, being maedivisna virus (MVV) and CAEV-like, respectively. In one goat herd, the presence of more than one genotype was confirmed and the majority of goat SRLV sequences were more closely related to MVV than to CAEV prototype strains.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
P. V. Drion
,
A. Zarrouk
,
J. Sulon
,
O. Szenci
,
J. F. Beckers
,
Zs. Perényi
,
B. Remy
, and
J. M. Garbayo

The Pregnancy Associated Glycoproteins (PAGs) presented in this paper are largely expressed in the ruminant placenta. These proteins are classified as probably inactive members of the aspartic proteinase family. Pepsinogen, renin, cathepsin E & D and chymosine are typical members of this family, characterised by the presence of aspartic acids boarding the recognition sites. Secreted in the peripheral blood of the pregnant female from early pregnancy, these proteins can be used in serological tests for establishing different diagnoses. In the veterinary practice, these diagnoses are useful for both pregnancy confirmation and follow-up of trophoblastic function. The first aspect can help breeders in the management of reproduction, while the second one more specifically concerns clinicians and researchers wishing to establish a differential diagnosis of pathologic conditions affecting pregnancy.

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