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Afanasev, I. B., Dorozhko, A. I., Brodskii, A. V., Kostyuk, V. A., Potapovitch, A. I. (1989) Chelating and free radical scavenging mechanisms of inhibitory action of rutin and quercetin in lipid peroxidation

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Acta Chromatographica
Authors: É. Szőke, G. Petroianu, K. Tekes, B. Benkő, P. Szegi, R. Laufer, and G. Veress

Summary

Reversed-phase HPLC has been used to monitor the concentration of the two major Chamomile components rutin and quercetin during rat liver microsomal treatment. The possibility of microsomal oxidative metabolism or stability of these two components was examined using a guard-column without any clean-up. The concentration of quercetin decreased when exposed to rat liver microsomal media whereas the rutin concentration did not change significantly over one hour of treatment.

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Abstract  

The thermal behavior of rutin extracted from the buds of Sophora japonica L. by different methods and conditions have been investigated using TG and DTG. The results showed that every sample had different mass loss, curve shape, and peak location related to varied extraction technology. The TG-DTG characteristics of the rutin sample extracted by alkali-dissolution and acid-sedimentation with the solution adjusted to pH 9 and simply borax as stabilizer were highly similar to that of standard rutin, with the maximal purity determined by spectrophotometry. Therefore, the TG-DTG patterns could be served to characterize rutin extracted from the buds of Sophora japonica L.

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Summary

An ultrasensitive and rapid method for the determination of epicatechin, rutin, and quercetin was developed using capillary zone electrophoresis with on-line chemiluminescence detection. Under the optimal conditions, the analytes were baseline separated within 12 min. The limits of detection in turn were 0.60 pg mL−1 for epicatechin, 0.50 pg mL−1 for rutin, and 1.0 pg mL−1 for quercetin. The developed method was an easy and reliable method of determining these analytes concentrations in tea, extract Ginkgo biloba, and rutin tablet, demonstrating the feasibility and reliability of the proposed method.

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of endophytic fungi from tartary buckwheat on the host sprout growth and functional metabolite production. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous fungal mycelia elicitors notably stimulated the sprout growth and rutin accumulation, and the stimulation effect was mainly depended on the mycelia elicitor species along with its treatment dose. Three endophytic fungi Fat6 (Bionectria pityrodes), Fat9 (Fusarium oxysporum) and Fat15 (Alternaria sp.) were screened to be the most effective candidates for promoting F. tataricum sprout growth and rutin production. With application of polysaccharide (PS, 150 mg/l) of endophyte Fat6, PS (200 mg/l) of endophyte Fat9, and PS (150 mg/l) of endophyte Fat15, the rutin yield was effectively increased to 47.89 mg/(100 sprouts), 45.85 mg/(100 sprouts) and 46.83 mg/(100 sprouts), respectively. That was about 1.5- to 1.6-fold compared to the control culture of 29.37 mg/(100 sprouts). Furthermore, the present study revealed that the biosynthesis of the functional flavonoid resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by mycelia polysaccharide treatments. Application of specific fungal elicitors could be an efficient strategy for improving the nutritional and functional quality of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

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The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of rutin, the main buckwheat flavonoid, on the growth and germination of selected phytopathogenic fungi — Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium solani . Fungitoxicity of rutin was determined by the germination test using conidial suspensions of a fungi and the radial growth test using agar discs with the maternal fungus mycelium. Effects of rutin on tested fungus species were not toxic. Rutin stimulated formation of germ tubes and conidia of A. alternata and F solani . Inhibitory effects were found only on prolongation of germ tubes, secondary hyphal branching and the radial growth of Botrytis cinerea . The effect of rutin was dependent on the concentration especially by Fusarium solani .

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Black elder inflorescence has been traditionally used in Central Europe both in folk and official medicine. This plant material is a rich source of two biologically active components, rutin and chlorogenic acid. Nevertheless, there is a lack of data on the changes of their content during processing.The stability of rutin and chlorogenic acid during drying and the long-term storage of black elder inflorescence were analysed in this study. The rutin content was determined by capillary electrophoresis using solid-phase extraction. HPLC was used for the determination of chlorogenic acid. The dependence of rutin and chlorogenic acid content on the temperature of drying and storage duration were monitored and statistically evaluated by a two-way ANOVA test. The contents of rutin and chlorogenic acid revealed no statistically significant changes when dried at temperatures of 22 °C and 30 °C. The significant decrease in contents of both studied compounds was found at a drying temperature of 50 °C. The decrease in content of rutin was about 20%, in chlorogenic acid about 12%.The content of both studied compounds also decreased after long-term storage (at a temperature of 22 °C for one year). The decrease in content of rutin was greater than that of chlorogenic acid.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: M. Nogala-Kałucka, K. Dwiecki, A. Siger, P. Górnaś, K. Polewski, and S. Ciosek

The aim of the study was to reveal antioxidant synergism or antagonism between quercetin, rutin and selected tocotrienols in linoleic acid emulsion. The oxidative stress was generated by 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) or CuSO4; the increase of the concentration of peroxidation products was monitored using fluorescence probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). The antioxidant activity of tested substances depends on the form of the antioxidant (aglycone, glycoside), its concentration, localization in the emulsion, and the factors generating oxidative stress. The synergistic effect occurred when the effectiveness of individual antioxidant was relatively weak and mainly when the concentration of antioxidants was in the physiologically significant range of 1 μM. We suggest that tocotrienols were regenerated by flavonoids. The synergism benefitted from the proximity of the localization of interacting antioxidants (e.g. the presence of one of the antioxidants at the oil-water interface).

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The effects of cAMP-elevating compounds IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methyl­xanthine) and isoproterenol, and that of rutin (an effective superoxide scavenger) were studied on orthovanadate- (a putative protein-phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in J774A.1 mouse macrophage cells. As we previously reported (Koncz and Horváth, 2000), rutin and sodium orthovanadate act synergistically to induce production of high amount of NO in J774A.1 cells. IBMX, an agent that can elevate cAMP level in the cells, can reduce the production of both the LPS- and rutin + orthovanadate-induced NO in macrophages. In contrast, isoproterenol, a non-selective ß-adrenergic receptor agonist, that reduced the LPS-induced NO production in macrophage cells, was unable to reduce the rutin + orthovanadate-induced NO production without negatively affecting cell viability. Moreover, isoproterenol dramatically enhanced the orthovanadate-induced NO synthesis in J774A.1 cells. Our previous study clarified that rutin and orthovanadate, in a specific concentration ratio of both, were able to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate as a marker for H2O2, isoproterenol alone induced its oxidation but the rutin plus orthovanadate-induced H2O2 production was reduced by isoproterenol. These observations have revealed that, in some cases, H2O2 and superoxide (O2 -) scavengers can act in a reverse mode on macrophage cells depending on the presence or absence of orthovanadate.

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4384 4387 Fabjan, N., Rode J., Kosir, I.J., Wang, Z.H., Zhang, Z., Kreft, I., 2003: Tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) as a source of dietary rutin and

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