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Sacrificing – Feasting – Cursing

Rituals in the Magna Mater Sanctuaries of Kempraten (Switzerland) and Mainz (Germany). An Interdisciplinary Approach

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author: Pirmin Koch

Summary

During rescue excavations between 2009 and 2013 carried out at the periphery of the vicus at Kempraten (municipality of Rapperswil-Jona, St. Gallen, Switzerland) a Gallo-Roman sanctuary, dating from the second quarter of the 2nd to the end of the 3rd century AD, was unearthed. The excavation included intense sampling for geoarchaeology and archaeobiology, which prompted the Archaeology Department of Canton St. Gall (KASG) to launch an interdisciplinary project. Four curse tablets attest to the cult of Magna Mater in the sanctuary at Kempraten.

This paper presents the first results of the interdisciplinary study and compares them to the Magna Mater sanctuary at Mainz (Germany), focusing on 1. the layout of the sanctuary, 2. sacrificing, 3. feastings and 4. cursing. The comparison between both sites showed that there was no strict setting of rituals in the cult of Magna Mater, but the importance of cursing and of burnt sacrifices is characteristic for both sites. Summing up: The temple precinct at Kempraten had a specific setting, which showed on one hand local and regional influences, for instance in terms of the temple architecture and the choice of food offerings. On the other hand, distinct differences between the Kempraten sanctuary and local Gallo-Roman sanctuaries can be observed, for instance in relation to cursing, the composition and the importance of the burnt offerings.

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This paper provides an overview of the extreme descriptions of northern peoples, including themes such as cannibalism, human sacrifice, alcohol-addiction and filthiness, in writings of the period from the eighteenth to the early twentieth centuries. These depictions are indicative of cultural barriers, extreme stereotypes and ethnocentrism - all phenomena that were relatively acceptable in the research of that period. In the eighteenth-century accounts, the medieval images were dropped completely and a scientific approach was adopted in the studies of northern cultures. Development of radical accounts of northern peoples in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries should be examined in a wider context of the most influential philosophers of that period.

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1950 Ryckmans, G. (1950–1951b): Le sacrifice ḎBḤ dans les inscriptions safaïtiques. Hebrew Union College Annual Vol. XXIII, pp. 431

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This paper examines a locus from the epitome of P. Annius Florus not yet interpreted (II. 24). After the victory over the Pannonians, Romans threw the weapons into the Sava and Drava rivers. According to written sources Romans offered their gods the weapons of the defeated enemy: they erected a tropaeum, built a hill of weapons, or burnt them. Either way, the archaeological finds show that the practice of throwing the weapons of the enemy into a river was also not unfamiliar to Roman soldiers. In my opinion Florus describes this kind of votive action.

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Abstract  

Polyvalent ions are very sensitive to gamma irradiation in aqueous solutions. The present work is a part of a more comprehensive study dealing with the stabilization of certain oxidation states of some polyvalent ions during their gamma irradiation in aqueous systems. Sulphite ions, being well known reducing agents has been used for stabilizing Fe(II) ions in aqueous solutions during gamma radiolysis. Fe(II) ions in solution are known to be readily oxidized by gamma radiations in such a way that a 10–3N solution decays completely in about 2 hours at a dose rate 310 Gy/hr. In presence of an excess of sulphite ions it was found that Fe(II) ions were stabilized for extended time periods depending on the amount of sulphite ions used. The conditions of stabilization and its limits in the studied case has been identified.

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E.g. Bévenot, M. : “Hi Qui Sacrificaverunt.” A Significant Variant in St. Cyprian’s De Unitate. The Journal of Theological Studies 5 (1954) 68–72; Dugmore, C. W. : Sacrament and Sacrifice in the Early Fathers. The Journal of Ecclesiastical

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measured by direct cannulation of the rat’s left carotid artery after the injection of urethane–chloralose. Further procedure was only continued after the animals had been confirmed hypertensive. Thereafter, the remaining animals were sacrificed and blood

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.g.) ( 11 ). Allantoin administration was performed for 5 days consecutively ( 9 ). On the 6th day, the rats were anesthetized by an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 50 mg/kg of sodium thiopental and sacrificed ( 17 ). The abdomen was excised through

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feeding experiment. One suckling piglet from each litter (a total of 20 piglets) were sacrificed using the euthanasia agent T61 (embutramide/mebezonium iodide/tetracaine hydrochloride, Intervet Deutschland GmbH, Unterschleissheim, Germany) when the piglets

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effort at the cost of sacrificing some contextual effects. Re-domestication, on the other hand, reduces processing effort and at the same time may be supposed to increase contextual effects. Omission in regular translation usually loses meaning, but

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