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Quinn , J. D. 1961 : Cabe Phokas, Lesbos. Site for an archaic sanctuary of Zeus, Hera and Dionysus? American Journalof Archaeology 65 , pp. 391 – 393
Near Csákvár, in the so-called Báraczháza cave there are relics of an antique Diana cult. A number of inscriptions can be found before and within the cave system, part of them known from the 18
c., part of them unpublished. The two main passages of the cave seem to have been the sanctuary. In the left passage the Diana idol carved into the stone remained, its iconography is nearly unique, and fits to a provincial cult based on pre-Roman, Celtic or Pannon background. At the end of the right passage there is a strange short inscription with a phallic symbol scratched into the wall, which may refer to the divine pair of the local Diana goddess, called most likely Silvanus. The statue and some inscriptions were made, and consequently the sanctuary was certainly used in the Severan Era, and probably remained in use until the later 4
c., when the spreading Christianity must have finished the cult, although the possible Christograms in the walls of the cave cannot be taken doubtless as signs for that; the cave contains some early New Age inscriptions too.
The study focuses on some original parts of the second building of Gyulafehérvár cathedral which are now missing, such as its original sanctuary, which was demolished soon after completion and replaced by another. Also discussed are a number of carvings used in a secondary or tertiary setting, as spolia, originally made around 1200 or at the beginning of the 13th century, and then removed from their original context. Fragments of chevron-decorated carvings can be arranged along an arch that, because of its size, can only be identified with the transverse arch of the original apse of the sanctuary. The transverse arch on the face of the Gyulafehérvár apse, built around 1200, was – as far as we know today – the largest structural element in Central Europe decorated with a “Norman” chevron ornament. From the exterior decoration of the original apse a surprisingly large number of richly decorated details still survive. The entablature high on top of the polygonal apse of the present-day sanctuary is richly decorated with figures and other motifs in high relief. The placement of these carvings is clearly secondary. Obviously pieces from the entablature of the 12th-century apse were re-used in the 13th-century Gothic apse (and later when it was rebuilt in the 18th century). The thematic focus of the Gyulafehérvár cornice also relates to the figural decoration of the capitals inside the sanctuary. In addition to this series, about a dozen or so other figural carvings from this same period adorn the church. The two reliefs depicting St. Michael, both found in secondary placement high on the outside wall of the sanctuary, are the most important of these carvings.
In the locality of Sopianae, Pannonia Inferior, at the east corner of the settlement, there was a presumably customs station built at the end of the 2nd century which existed till 258–260 AD. From one of the rooms of the building excavated on Kossuth Square, Pécs, a fresco depicting a Genius, an inscription belonging to it, two pedestals – probably bases for statues – and a statue of an eagle came to light. Based on the assemblage the room may have been the sanctuary (sacellum) of the official building. The rare but formal telonium or teloneum expression may have been used for this customs station which, as such, belonged to the organization of the Publicum portorium Illyrici. The only surviving inscription may have been dedicated to the genius of the employees or the armed guards of the customs station: Genio | cu(stodiarum?) tel(onei?). On the pedestal bases probably emperor statues were situated. On the eastern wall of the west–east oriented room, based on its own pedestal and generally because of its quality, there was the relief of an eagle placed in a niche personalizing Iuppiter and the imperial power. In this case the eagle can be taken as a state-imperial symbol found in its own context and thus belonged to the rare Roman Age relics of the administration. The sanctuary must basically serve the official imperial cult.
During rescue excavations between 2009 and 2013 carried out at the periphery of the vicus at Kempraten (municipality of Rapperswil-Jona, St. Gallen, Switzerland) a Gallo-Roman sanctuary, dating from the second quarter of the 2nd to the end of the 3rd century AD, was unearthed. The excavation included intense sampling for geoarchaeology and archaeobiology, which prompted the Archaeology Department of Canton St. Gall (KASG) to launch an interdisciplinary project. Four curse tablets attest to the cult of Magna Mater in the sanctuary at Kempraten.
This paper presents the first results of the interdisciplinary study and compares them to the Magna Mater sanctuary at Mainz (Germany), focusing on 1. the layout of the sanctuary, 2. sacrificing, 3. feastings and 4. cursing. The comparison between both sites showed that there was no strict setting of rituals in the cult of Magna Mater, but the importance of cursing and of burnt sacrifices is characteristic for both sites. Summing up: The temple precinct at Kempraten had a specific setting, which showed on one hand local and regional influences, for instance in terms of the temple architecture and the choice of food offerings. On the other hand, distinct differences between the Kempraten sanctuary and local Gallo-Roman sanctuaries can be observed, for instance in relation to cursing, the composition and the importance of the burnt offerings.
A survey of archaeological, epigraphic, and literary sources demonstrates that Hispellum is an adequate case study to examine the different stages through which Augustus’ Romanization program was implemented. Its specificity mainly resides in the role played by the shrine close to the river Clitumnus as a symbol of the meeting between the Umbrian identity and the Roman culture.
A preceding archeological excavation opened the way for the recovery of a larger building complex on Kossuth Square, Pécs. A wall-painting islet consisting of fragmented, but contigious pieces was unearthed, was a part of a larger painting decorating the northern wall of the room of the building complex in Severan times. The half man size figure surviving in bust was created with a brilliant brushwork using rich colours on a white background. The figure can be identified as Genius based on his attributes (the cornucopia and the crown) and the inscription of the painting. This paper discusses reconstruction possibilities of the wall-painting, painting techniques and materials applied, and deals with the possible functions of the room the wall-painting was unearthed in.
Votive Terracotta Phenomenon: Healing sanctuaries in the Etrusco-Latial Campanian region during the fourth through first centuries B.C. [Diss.] University of Cincinnati 1999 .
Comella 1981 = A. Comella : Tipologia e diffusione dei complessi
bison athabascae) grazing on a sub-hygric shrub meadow plant community type, Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary, Northwest Territories. M.S. Thesis. Univ. Alberta. Edmonton.
The impacts of Wood Bison (Bison bison
The recently published curse tablets from the sanctuary of Magna Mater in Mainz, from the hero shrines of Opheltes and Palaimon, and from the sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, as well as a single curse tablet from late Roman Antioch invoking the “secret names” of the Samothracian deities, all suggest some connection between mystery religions and cursing. Two possible explanations are explored: (i) because initiates had special access to divine powers, their curses were thought to be especially powerful; or (ii) because these new discoveries fit two traditional types of defixiones: those placed in or at the graves of those violently killed, like Opheltes, or those placed in sanctuaries of female divinities, like Demeter, whose myths focus on the loss and return of a loved one from Hades.