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This paper deals with the seismic vulnerability assessment analysis of some existing typified school buildings in Albania. This is particularly important for the estimation of probable damages and buildings’ behaviour in case of strong earthquakes. Three typified of R/C school buildings are selected for evaluation. Conclusions are only referred to the selected buildings. However, the developed approach may be used for the analysis of other structural types.The first step of the study is the identification of the seismic zones — where the buildings are located — and the period of their constructions. Second, information on the seismic design conditions of the buildings is used and pushover analyses are performed in order to provide their respective capacity curves. Subsequently, using the procedures developed in the L2-Method — i.e.: modeling bilinear capacity curves in AD format, defining the damage threshold levels, calculating cumulative probability, and performing regression analysis — the fragility curves are obtained.After considering the different seismic sites reviewing code requirements (the existing Albanian Code KTP-N2-89 and Eurocode 8) and analyzing performance points, the probable damage levels of the buildings is assessed.

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The paper presents significant aspects regarding the concept and details of constructive solutions used to design and implement an energy efficient school building in Romania. Although the site is in a moderate seismic zone, the structural needs of the building impose specific insulation solutions for making the passive house concept applicable. Renewable energy sources are also applied to optimize the maintenance cost and to reduce the payback period to a feasible level. In order to prove the benefits of the solutions, to justify the higher initial investment, to improve the real-time energy consumption of the building, as well as to keep track of the internal climate parameters, a complex monitoring system was planned and implemented. Details and correlation between specific details and temperature sensors distribution are also presented.

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Abstract  

Coals mined in some regions of the Transdanubian Middle Mountains in Hungary have elevated concentrations of natural radionuclides as238U,226Ra, etc. Therefore, coal slags and ashes used for insulation of the school buildings may lead to high dose contributions on the students. In the city of Tatabánya one school was found where the external dose rates in the classrooms were of 500–900 nGy/h. In spite of the high external dose rates, the radon concentrations measured were small usually less than 100 Bq/m3.

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The summer months are increasingly seeing a lot of hot days. Therefore, increasing demands for air conditioning in dwelling houses, hospitals, hotels, workspaces, and the other commercial buildings. In many countries air conditioning is the biggest consumer of energy in the buildings. Reducing energy consumption we can achieve in different ways.The article deals with reducing energy for cooling the various alternatives ventilation and solar cooling. The room under simulation was ventilated by six methods. Of these 6 cook lowest energy consumption and CO2 production had ventilation 90% overnight and 10% over day. Subsequently, using absorption refrigeration unit, powered by heat from the sun. In this case the power consumption is reduced to a minimum.

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Evacuation centers play a vital role for natural disaster-prone countries like the Philippines. In the Philippines, a public school building serves as temporary evacuation centers for the displaced families. This study presents the design and methodology of blackboard modular furniture that can be converted to an emergency partition and storage for emergency provisions. These modular partitions provide a sense of privacy for each of the affected families, which are needed in any evacuation centers, particularly on the sick, aged, menstruating women and lactating mothers, among others. By using the participative design method, the design will therefore ensure user acceptability by the stakeholders. The resulting design allows for adaptability and portability, which therefore reduce material waste and cost. The final design was the product of the both participatory design approach while following the guidelines of the Department of Education of the Philippines.

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), Faculty of Civil Engineering , Košice, 2011. Nagy R., Košičanová D. Recovery-case study of school buildings — 2010. In: Summer School HVAC 2010 , 8–10 September 2010, Český Šternberk, Praha, pp. 39–44.

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The paper deals with school construction in Hungary between 1945 and 1964, with greater emphasis on type plans. First the factors influencing school planning and the plans themselves are introduced. From among the legal provisions and government measures, the orders on compulsory schooling determined the volume of constructions. The design of a school building is always influenced by building law regulations, fire protection, usage safety and sanitary prescriptions. They determine the positioning of the building, the size of classrooms and common rooms, their illumination and place within the building.

The beginning of state-ordered school construction goes back to 1777. The centrally ordered plans were always connected with educational reforms, also in the late 19th century and the first half of the 20th century as well as after World War II.

Each of the large planning companies initiated by the government after 1945 received a special architectural profile. School planning was the task of KÖZTI (Planning Office of Public Buildings), but owing to gaps in the bureaucratic regulations architects employed by other planning companies (Pécsterv, Mezőterv, Városterv, etc.) did also produce school plans in addition to KÖZTI architects. The same applies to TTI, the Type Planning Institute. The planning of school types began in 1949, but the use of types of different sizes and solutions was only compulsory in 1958 and 1964. Through the description of individual plans and realized buildings, the paper presents the different plan types which included a considerable number of original and high-quality designs. Even when type plans became compulsory, the number of schools built on individual plans did not decrease. Through the detailed description and scholarly analyses of several individual buildings, it can be confirmed that single plans did not decrease because their formal and technical solutions were attempts at the modernization of school planning. The author stresses that the successful plans were realized at several places, which might indicate that the original goal was the reproduction of the most up-to-date and economical models in large numbers. The leading architects who planned schools included Péter Reischl and István Kiss (type and individual plans), Kamill Kismarty-Lechner, István Brjeska, György Szrogh and Lajos Zalaváry. In their schools they applied the newest formal idiom of contemporary international school design (bilateral lighting with shifted floors, slanting half-gable roof over a complex building mass, surfaces faced with lasting natural materials, contemporary art works for decoration).

By way of a conclusion, the paper raises the possibility and need for the examination of school construction in the period from the viewpoints of building use, effects of schools and their role in the universal architectural history of the period.

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. , Ahn K. U. , Park C. S. , Schuetze T. Assessment of passive vs. active strategies for a school building design , Sustainability , Vol. 7 , No. 11 , 2015 , pp. 15136 ‒ 15151 . [3

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] Košičanová D. , Fedorčák P. Reducing energy consumption with using ventilation and solar cooling, school building's case study , Pollack Periodica , Vol. 6 , No. 2 , 2011 , pp. 131 – 138

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: Places and Technologies . Ed.: Molnár , Tamás Pécsi Tudományegyetem Műszaki és Informatikai Kar , Pécs 2019 . 117 – 127 . Babos 2019b Babos, Annamária: Werkpalast CoHousing: Case Study of Collective Reuse of a Prefabricated School Building

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