Authors:Daniela Atanasova, Teodora Toshova and M. Subchev
Monitoring the seasonal flights of the yellow alfalfa geometrid,
(Denis and Schiffermuller, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), was made using home made sticky delta traps baited with pheromone caps purchased from “CSALOMON®” (Plant Protection Institute, Hungary, Budapest). The monitoring was conducted in alfalfa fields in Plovdiv, Pazardjik and Sofia regions in Bulgaria during 2007–2009. The flight of
at the investigated sites started during April and lasted until the end of August — middle of September. Two relatively well-defined peaks indicating two generations were recorded in Sofia region. Thus the flight period of the pest was defined more accurately than previously recorded and proved to be significantly longer than was known for this country. Pheromone baits, products of “CSALOMON®” (Plant Protection Institute, Hungary, Budapest), are potent and very species specific tool for detecting the presence of, and seasonal monitoring of
Monitoring the seasonal flights of the Latticed heath, Chiasmia clathrata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), was carried out using home made sticky delta traps baited with pheromone caps purchased from CSALOMON® (Plant Protection Institute, Hungary, Budapest). The monitoring was conducted in alfalfa fields in Pazardzhik and Sofia regions in Bulgaria during 2007–2009. The flight of C. clathrata at the investigated sites started at the very beginning of April and lasted until the middle-end of September. Three relatively well-defined peaks, indicating three generations, were recorded in Sofia region. Thus, the flight period and the flight of the separate generations of the pest were defined more accurately than it has been reported earlier. Pheromone baits, products of CSALOMON ® are potent and species specific tools for detecting the presence and seasonal monitoring of C. clathrata.
Authors:M. Subchev, T. Toshova, D. Atanasova, V. Petrova and M. Tóth
Two-year seasonal monitoring of the flight of Phthorimaea operculella by means of pheromone traps was organized at four sites in three districts in Bulgaria: Sofia, Kyustendil and Plovdiv. Comparison between sticky traps and dry funnel traps has shown that sticky traps were much more effective in capturing of males of this pest than the dry ones. The results of our investigations showed that the pest could appear in the field as early as the end of March and also intensive flight could be observed up to the end of November. Single catches were registered even in January. However, because of overlapping of the generations, their number and periods of moth emergence was not possible to be distinguished by the catches in pheromone traps. Analyses of climatic data (mean air temperature and mean rainfall) indicated that none of the climatic variables investigated strongly affected P. operculella trap catches.
Authors:M. Subchev, T. Toshova, R. Andreev, V. Petrova, V. Maneva, T. Spasova, N. Marinova, P. Minkov and D. Velchev
Field investigations with CSALOMON® floral-chemical baited color traps for scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidoidaea) were organized in eight sites in different regions in Bulgaria during 2009–2010. As a result data about distribution and seasonal flight were obtained for the target species Cetonia aurata L. and Protaetia cuprea (Fabricius) and two other non-target species, Valgus hemipterus L. and Blitopertha lineolata (Fischer von Waldheim). Catches of C. aurata were recorded in all of the sites where observations were organized but the number of the beetles caught was relatively low. The earliest catches of this pest were registered in the middle-end of April and the latest ones in early August. Single catches of P. cuprea, not allowing doing conclusions about seasonal flight for this species, were recorded only in Dryanovo, Knezha, Plovdiv and Troyan. Catches of V. hemipterus, were registered in all of the sites with the exception of Petrich. The flight period of this species, as established by catches in the traps, was middle-end of April — early June. Significant number of B. lineolata was caught in Dryanovo in 2009 and single catches in Plovdiv in 2009 and Kyustendil in 2009 and 2010. The earliest catches for the two years in Dryanovo were registered in the middle-end of May and the latest ones in the middle of June. This is the first report about floral-chemical attractant for this species. For all four species the relative catches in traps for C. aurata/P. cuprea, Tropinota (Epicometis) hirta (Poda) and Oxythyrea funesta (Poda), operating simultaneously in the investigated sites, were presented and analyzed.
Authors:Teodora Toshova, Daniela Atanasova, M. Tóth and M. Subchev
The Lucerne longicorn,
Plagionotus (Echinocerus) floralis
(Pallas) is a pest on alfalfa,
L. and several other species in the area of its distribution. Seasonal flight activity of adults of this species was studied for first time by CSALOMON® ARb3z fluorescent yellow traps with a floral attractant in alfalfa fields at three sites located in Tracian Lowland (Pazardzhik and Plovdiv) and Sofia Basin (Sofia) zoogeographical regions of Bulgaria. At all three sites
P. (Echinocerus) floralis
beetles were caught in relatively large numbers. Flight activity of the pest occurs over a period of about two months from the end of May (in Pazardzhik and Plovdiv) and middle of June (in Sofia) until the end of July. In Sofia (2007), the abundance of the pest in an old (5-year-old) alfalfa was significantly higher than in a young (1-year-old) alfalfa. In the untreated fields, air temperature and air humidity had no effect on beetle captures. Our investigations showed that yellow fluorescent VARb3z traps baited with floral lure can be used successfully for detection and seasonal monitoring of
P. (Echinocerus) floralis
. Data obtained by monitoring of the seasonal activity of adults using baited traps can be useful for forecasting and controlling outbreaks of the pest.
Hedya nubiferana (Haworth) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a polyphagous pest damaging apple, pear, peach, plum and other related fruits. In tests conducted in Hungary, traps baited with a female-targeted lure [ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) + acetic acid; abbreviated later as PE+AA] caught comparable number of moths as pheromone baited traps. Traps with PE+AA lures caught (females and males together) on an average 30% of the catch in traps baited with the synthetic green budworm moth sex pheromone (catching all males). This suggested that the PE+AA lure had a trapping performance comparable with that of pheromone traps, which latter are in practical use by farmers today. The seasonal flight patterns recorded with the PE+AA baited traps were similar to those with the sex pheromone baited ones, with respect to detection of beginning of flight and quantitative trends of catches during the flight. Consequently, the PE+AA lure shows potential for future practical applications as a female-targeted lure for H. nubiferana.
Authors:M. Tóth, J. Vuts, F. Difranco, R. Tabilio, B. Baric, J. Razov, T. Toshova, M. Subchev and I. Sredkov
. (1964): Una grave infestazione de cetonia pelose alla vite in Sicilia. Nota di fitopatologia N. 26. Luglio 1964, 307–314.
Mircheva, A., Subchev, M., Sredkov, I. and Tóth, M. (2004): Seasonalflight of