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. Vandenberghe 1997 : Comparison of layer grain size analysis with pipette and sieve analysis: A solution for the underestimation of the clay fraction . – Sedimentology , 44 , pp. 523 – 535 . 10.1046/j.1365-3091.1997.d01

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113 252 Balogh, K., (Ed.) 1991: Szedimentológia I-II-III (Sedimentology I-II-III). - Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. (In Hungarian

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Oost-Albert, P., H. Baas-Jaco 1994: The development of small scale bedforms in tidal environments; an empirical model for unsteady flow and its applications. - Sedimentology, 41/5, pp. 883-903. The development of small scale

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Central European Geology
Authors: Ádám Bede, Roderick B. Salisbury, András István Csathó, Péter Czukor, Dávid Gergely Páll, Gábor Szilágyi, and Pál Sümegi

The Ecse-halom is a burial mound (kurgan) in the Hortobágy region of Hungary. Built in the Late Copper Age/Early Bronze Age by nomadic people from the east, it now stands on the border between two modern settlements. A road of medieval origin runs along this border and cuts deeply into the body of the mound. The southern half of the mound was plowed and used as a rice field, and later a military observation tower was built on top of it. Despite this disturbance, the surface of the mound is in decent condition and provides a home for regionally significant, species-rich loess steppe vegetation. The mound comprises two construction layers as indicated by magnetic susceptibility and thin-section micro-morphological analysis. Examination of organic compounds and carbonate content at various levels showed different values, which suggest a variety of natural and anthropogenic stratigraphic layers. Mid-sized siltstone fraction is dominant in the section. The layers originate from the immediate vicinity of the mound, but have different characteristics than present-day soils. These mounds contain a valuable record of cultural and environmental conditions occurring at the time of their construction, and also serve as a refuge for ancient loess vegetation; therefore their conservation is highly recommended.

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Central European Geology
Authors: János Haas, Tamás Budai, István Dunkl, Éva Farics, Sándor Józsa, Szilvia Kövér, Annette E. Götz, Olga Piros, and Péter Szeitz

The 1,200-m-deep Budaörs-1 borehole provided important data for our understanding of the stratigraphy and tectonic setting of the southern part of the Buda Hills. Although previous reports contained valid observations and interpretations, a number of open questions remained. The importance of this borehole and the unsolved problems motivated us to revisit the archived core. The new studies confirmed the existing stratigraphic assignment for the upper dolomite unit (Budaörs Dolomite Formation) as the dasycladalean alga flora proved its late Anisian to Ladinian age assignment. An andesite dike was intersected within the Budaörs Dolomite. U–Pb age determination performed on zircon crystals revealed a Carnian age (~233 Ma), and settled the long-lasting dispute on the age of this dike, proving the existence of a Carnian volcanic activity in this area after the deposition of the Budaörs Dolomite. Palynostratigraphic studies provided evidence for a late Carnian to early Norian age of the upper part of the lower unit (Mátyáshegy Formation). This result verified an earlier assumption and reinforced the significance of the tectonic contact between the upper unit (Budaörs Formation) and the lower unit (Mátyáshegy Formation). Based on structural observations and construction of cross sections, two alternative models are presented for the structural style and kinematics of the contact zone between the Budaörs and Mátyáshegy Formations. Model A suggests a Cretaceous age for the juxtaposition, along an E–W striking sinistral transpressional fault. In contrast, model B postulates dextral transpression and an Eocene age for the deformation. The latter one is better supported by the scattered dip data; however, both scenarios are considered in this paper as possible models.

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The Little Plain Basin is one of the largest units in the Pannonian Basin System. Its continuation in Slovakia is called the Danube Basin. The Little Plain Basin is one of the most underexplored areas in Hungary. Based on archival geologic and geophysical data the lithostratigraphic composition of the area is controversial. The significance of the area is increased by the known Neogene and the supposed basement (Paleozoic and Mesozoic) hydrocarbon systems in Hungary and in Slovakia.

The purpose of this study is to identify the exact age, facies, geologic formations and possible source rocks of the Triassic section penetrated by the Gyõrszemere-2 well in the Little Plain Basin.

Based on new facies and paleontological results it can be stated that two Triassic sequences are identified in the well, separated by fault breccia. A carbonate sequence was deposited between the Induan and Early Anisian and above that a homogeneous recrystallized dolomite appears, the age of which is unknown.

The following formations were encountered, from base upward:

Arács Marl Fm. (3,249.5–3,030 m), silty marl with ooids, bivalves, gastropods and ostracode shells. Occasionally layers of angular quartz grains in large quantities appear. Postcladella kahlori and Spirobis phlyctaena indicates Induan (Early Triassic) age.

Köveskál Dolomite Fm. (3,030–2,790 m), rich in ooids and also containing anhydrite. The Glomospira and Glomospirella dominance indicates an age interval between Olenekian and earliest Anisian age.

Fault breccia (2,790–2,690 m) separating the Köveskál and overlying dolomites.

Upper dolomite (2,690–2,200 m): homogeneous, saccharoidal, and totally recrystallized. The age is unknown.

The low TOC values of the supposed source rock interval (marl between 3,249.5 and 3,030 m) indicate poor hydrocarbon potential.

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The Sárrét marshland is situated along the northeastern foothills of the Bakony Mountains, along a NE-SW-trending neotectonic zone. Investigation of the marshland and the reconstruction of its evolution are especially interesting to compare to the present and the expected future stage of Lakes Balaton and Velence. Based on the sedimentological characteristics of the core sequence and the geochemical, physical, and mineralogical composition of the layers, three sedimentological cycles could be separated. The three cycles represent the most important evolutionary phases of lake formation: flourishing and progressive aging. First, a nutrient-poor, open-water lake existed, where clastic sediments (sand and silty clay) were deposited. During the second phase, phytoplankton-produced autogenic lime mud was deposited in the progressively more eutrophic water. Peat accumulation during the third stage indicates the marsh phase of the lake.The results suggest that the studied sequence developed from Late Glacial to Middle Holocene. According to radiocarbon dating the accumulation rate in Sárrét (Sümegi, this volume) corresponds to the sedimentation rates in the Tapolca Basin and Lake Balaton.

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, S., Jr., 1987: Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy. - MacMillan Publishing Co., New York, 304 p. Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy 304

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Abstract  

Ample evidence exists from ancient Indian texts, geomorphology and sedimentology that a mighty river that once originated in the Himalayas flowed in the North-west India during 7000-3000 BP and disappeared in the sands of the Rajasthan desert. Remote sensing combined with ground search identified part of the buried channel of the ancient river in the Jaisalmer region of Rajasthan. Isotope study showed that the fresh groundwater in that region was indeed ancient and slowly moving southwest and probably had headwater connection in the lower ranges of Himalayas, but not to any glacier. The isotope data (2H, 18O, 3H and 14C) compare well with the data in a similar study on another branch of the buried channel in the Cholistan part of the Thar Desert in Pakistan.

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-125. Klappa, C.F. 1978: Biolithogenesis of Microcodium: elucidation. - Sedimentology, 25, pp. 489-522. Klappa, C.F. 1980: Rhizoliths in terrestrial carbonates: classification, recognition, genesis and significance. - Sedimentology

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