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Igrejas, G., Guedes-Pinto, H., Cardine, V., Branlard, G. 1999. Seed storage protein diversity in triticale varieties commonly grown in Portugal. Plant Breeding 118 :303–306. Branlard G

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The subunit composition of reduced prolamin fractions of winter triticale cultivars of different pedigrees was investigated by means of SDS-PAGE. A comparative analysis of the electrophoregram patterns of triticale cultivars and those of wheat and rye revealed that each cultivar had a unique pattern. Both the glutenin subunits of wheat and the secalin units of rye could be found in triticale cultivars. Whole-grain flour of triticale and wheat was used in baking experiments. The HMW glutenin subunit composition and baking quality of triticale cultivars were in the predicted correlation. Flour from the triticale cultivars could be used in breadmaking by mixing it with up to 30% wheat flour.

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SDS-PAGE was used to determine the variation in high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) alleles present in 170 landraces of common wheat from Sindh, Balochistan and NWFP in Pakistan. Three alleles for Glu-A1 , six alleles for Glu-B1 and four alleles for Glu-D1 were detected. These included three new alleles, namely Glu-B1e, Glu-B1h and Glu-D1n , which had not previously been found in landraces of Pakistani wheat. Furthermore, Glu-D1m and Glu-D1n , which are considered to be endemic alleles in Pakistan and Afghanistan, were both detected from Balochistan. Twenty genotypes were identified based on combinations of alleles at the three Glu-1 loci. The present study showed that Pakistani landraces of common wheat have maintained a broad diversity of HMW-GS alleles, and that they may serve as genetic resources to improve wheat varieties adapted to Pakistani climatic and edaphic conditions.

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The most abundant seed storage proteins of wheat are gliadins and glutenins. Gliadins, including α/β, γ and ω types, are normally monomeric proteins and account for about 50% of the gluten proteins. In this study, 55 sequences of γ -gliadin genes were obtained from species of Sitopsis section, the deduced B genome donors of wheat. Despite the high sequence similarities to the known γ -gliadin genes, extensive variations were also found. Using the extensive sequence information deposited in database and obtained in this study, a comprehensive classification of the γ -gliadin multigene families were performed based on the primary structures and phylogenic analysis. All the γ -gliadin genes analyzed could be divided into 2 types, which contain 8 and 9 cysteines, respectively. Type I (with 8 cysteines) and type II (with 9 cysteines) are further classified to 7 and 4 groups, respectively, and several subgroups are also identified. The genes derived from A, B and D genomes of common wheat were clustered distinctly, indicating that there was apparent genomic specificity in γ -gliadins genes. Besides the high homology between γ -gliadin genes from Sitopsis species and B genome of wheat, some unique groups or subgroups were also identified in Sitopsis section, suggesting that it could be considered as a valuable source of γ -gliadin genes. The comparison of deduced primary structures of each group and/or subgroup was conducted, from which their evolution and quality properties were also speculated.

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. pone.0070844. Rasheed , A. , Xia , X.C. , Yan , Y.M. , Appels , R. , Mahmood , T. , He , Z.H. 2014 . Wheat seed storage proteins: Advances in molecular genetics

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seed storage protein of pea ( Pisum sativum L.). Biochem. J. , 212 , 427–432. Boulter D. Sequence specificity of the post-translational proteolytic cleavage of vicilin

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Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder, affecting over 30% of the world’s human population. The primary method used to alleviate this problem is nutrient biofortification of crops so as to improve the iron content and its availability in food sources. The over-expression of ferritin is an effective method to increase iron concentration in transgenic crops. For the research reported herein, sickle alfalfa (Medicago falcata L.) ferritin was transformed into wheat driven by the seed-storage protein glutelin GluB-1 gene promoter. The integration of ferritin into the wheat was assessed by PCR, RT-PCR and Western blotting. The concentration of certain minerals in the transgenic wheat grain was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, the results showed that grain Fe and Zn concentration of transgenic wheat increased by 73% and 44% compared to nontransformed wheat, respectively. However, grain Cu and Cd concentration of transgenic wheat grain decreased significantly in comparison with non-transformed wheat. The results suggest that the over-expression of sickle alfalfa ferritin, controlled by the seed-storage protein glutelin GluB-1 gene promoter, increases the grain Fe and Zn concentration, but also affects the homeostasis of other minerals in transgenic wheat grain.

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Rye (Secale cereale) plays an important role in wheat improvement. Here we report a new triticale, named Fenzhi-1, derived from the wide cross MY11 (Triticum aestivum) × Jingzhou (Secale cereale) after the in vitro rye pollen has been irradiated by He-Ne laser. Morphologically, Fenzhi-1 is characterized by branched-spikes. Genetically, Fenzhi-1 displays stable fertility and immunity to wheat powdery mildew and stripe rust. In situ hybridization (FISH) and seed storage protein electrophoresis revealed that Fenzhi-1 is a new primary hexaploid triticale (AABBRR). The present study not only provides a new method to synthesize an artificial species, but also shows that Fenzhi-1 could be a valuable source for wheat improvement.

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Low molecular weight glutenin subunits are important components of wheat seed storage protein, and play a significant in determining the end-use quality characteristics of wheat varieties. Allelic variation of the LMW-GS is associated with the significant differences of dough quality in bread and durum wheat, and has been widely evaluated at protein level in wheat and its relatives. In this study seven specific primers, specifically amplify genes located at the Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 loci, were employed to assay the length variation of LMW-GS genes in the A and D-genomes of diploid wheats. A total of 86 accessions of diploid wheats, including 10 accessions of T. boeoticum and 76 accessions of Ae. tauschii , were investigated. Seven alleles were detected in accessions of T. boeoticum ( Glu-A3 locus) by two pairs of specific primers and eighteen alleles were detected in accessions of Ae. tauschii ( Glu-D3 locus) by five pairs of specific primers. A higher level of allelic variation of LMW-GS was found in accession T. boeoticum and Ae. tauschii with Nei’s genetic variation index (H) of 0.82 and 0.92, respectively. This allelic variation could be used as valuable source for the enrichment of genetic variations and the alteration of flour-processing properties of the cultivated wheat.

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One hundred and sixty Pakistani Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare accessions were analyzed for genetic diversity on the basis of hordein, seed storage proteins. In total we have analyzed 7 Hor-1, 12 Hor-2 and 5 Hor-3 alleles for three hordein loci in barley accessions on SDS-PAGE. Out of 24 polymorphic alleles, three rare alleles (Hor 3.1, Hor 2.1, Hor 1.1) were detected. Abundant genetic variability was observed in Pakistani barley accessions for hordein loci. Genetic similarities calculated for all pair wise comparisons of H. vulgare accessions were used to form 83 banding patterns that represent the core collections of Pakistan, which included 50 unique patterns. Multivariate analysis conducted to generate similarity matrix using Jaccard’s coefficient (Jaccard, 1908) to estimate relatedness and divergence among 160 accessions ranged from 0.11 to 1.00, representing high level of genetic variability. Clustering was carried out to determine genetic diversity among the core collections that clustered them into three major clusters. In this study genetic diversity for cultivated barley belonging to different regions of Pakistan were in the order of Punjab> Balochistan> Northern Area> Sindh> A.J.K.> N.W.F.P.

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