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Montanari, M., Lovato, A., Cazzola, V. 1982: Influence of plant density, nitrogen fertilizer and topping on seed yield in sugar beet. Rivista di Agronomia , 16 , 111-116. Influence of plant density, nitrogen fertilizer and topping

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217 Primack, R. B. Antonovics, J. (1981): Experimental ecological genetics in Plantago. V. Components of seed yield in the ribwort plaintain, Plantago lanceolata L. - Evolution 35 : 1069

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fertility effects on seed yield, water-use and water use efficiency of spring sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Indian J. Agric. Sci. , 69 , 101-105. Genotype, irrigation and fertility effects on seed yield, water-use and water use

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A half diallel of nine genetically diverse varieties was made and the resulting 36 F 1 populations were evaluated along with the parents. The analysis of variance indicated that heterosis was significant for all the characters, except test weight. The heterosis components were also significant for most of the traits studied. The specific heterosis component accounted for more than 80% of the overall heterosis, indicating a complex type of inheritance for seed yield and its component traits. The crosses JF 29 × Local, RF 125 × JF 29 and UF (M)-1 × RF 101 exhibited significant positive heterobeltiosis for seed yield per plant. The parents RF125 and JF 29 merit attention as parents in the development of hybrids. The use of recurrent selection and the development of composites are suggested as ways to improve yielding ability in fennel.

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Prats Perez, A., Munoz de Con, L., Fundora Mayor, Z. (1996): Influence of onion bulb size and its locality of origin on seed yield. Onion Newsletter for the Tropics , 7, 25

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Studies were made on the fodder and seed production of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) using twelve treatment combinations with four levels of nitrogen (30, 60, 90 and 120 kg/ha/cut) and three levels of phosphorus (0, 50 and 100 kg P2O5/ha), laid out in a randomized block design with four replications. The mean of two years indicated that nitrogen at 120 kg/ha/cut increased the green fodder (834 q/ha) and dry matter yield (129 q/ha) significantly over the lower doses. After leaving the same crop for seed production during mid-March, nitrogen at the rate of 60 kg/ha gave the highest seed yield (7.61 q/ha). Beyond this dose the seed yield decreased drastically due to lodging. Phosphorus at the rate of 50 kg P2O5/ha gave 5% higher dry matter (99.6 q/ha) and 7.4% higher seed yield (7.26 q/ha) over the control.

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Nine bitter vetch selection lines were evaluated in three successive years to determine their yield and seed index (100-seed weight) stabilities, based on three parameters: phenotypic index (P), regression coefficient (bi), and least deviation from regression (S2 di). The line Sel. 2517 (L7) was identified as the most stable one for the growing seasons, while Sel. 2509 (L2) and Sel. 2511 (L4) were found to be stable for seed yield under favourable climatic conditions. For seed index Sel. 2515 (L6) was identified as the most stable line. Selection line 2513 (L5), which originated from Cyprus, had the highest degree of responsiveness to changing environments.

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Orobanche foetida is an important new agricultural problem in Tunisia. It has been recently observed on vetch in Morocco showing increased risk of spread. In order to control this new parasite, field trials were conducted during two crop seasons to examine the effect of sowing date on O. foetida infection by using resistant and susceptible faba bean cultivars. The results demonstrated that late sowing reduced significantly the number and the dry weight of emerged O. foetida shoots for the resistant Najeh cultivar but not for the susceptible Badi cultivar. Late sowing (December) also reduced the number of underground tubercles for both cultivars. With December sowing, some attachments reached emergence stage for Badi but not for Najeh showing a delay in the growth of O. foetida on the resistant cultivar. Seed yield increased significantly on late sowing especially for the resistant Najeh cultivar which produces a much higher seed yield than the susceptible Badi cultivar. This can be explained by the reduced number and dry weight of O. foetida attachments and a slight decrease in shoot dry weight of the resistant cultivar. Combining both resistant cultivar with late sowing could be a useful tool as part of an integrated strategy to control O. foetida in Tunisia.

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438 443 Banik, B. R., Sarker, R., Pandit, D. B. 1997: Genotype environment interaction of seed yield and seed weight in chickpea. Legume Research , 20 , 230

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To assess the stability and yield performance of safflower genotypes and to identify subregions within Iran, a set of experiments was conducted at six locations during 2003–2005. AMMI model analysis and some stability parameters derived from the grain yield were used. AMMI analysis showed differences between genotypes and environments and the GE interaction was highly significant, indicating that the agro-climatic environmental conditions were different, and that there was a differential response of the genotypes to the environments. The first two IPCA components of the GE interaction explained 51.5% of the GE interaction. According to the AMMI model, G16 was the most superior genotype in 15 out of 18 environments. The biplot of IPCA1 and IPCA2 showed that the six locations represent different environments, and mega-environments in Iran were identified for safflower breeding programmes. Due to the great fluctuation observed when selecting genotypes through stability parameters, it was not possible to distinguish stable genotypes clearly. In addition, when calculating these parameters high yield performance is not considered. So the Yield and Stability Index (YSI) can be recommended as a new approach to facilitate genotype selection, where genotypes with low values of YSI are the best. According to YSI the genotypes G16, G2, G9 and G1 can be selected. These genotypes were also selected using the AMMI model.

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