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Adalékok az esztergomi Keresztény Múzeum egy bolognai képéhez

Contributions to a Bolognese painting in the Christian Museum, Esztergom

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Ágnes Katona


I wish to prove that the painting preserved in the store of the Christian Museum of Esztergom attributed to: “Bolognese painter, last quarter of the 16th century: Self-Portrait of the Artist with his Family” was painted in 1583–84 by Tiburzio Passarotti (1553–1612), the first-born son of the great Bolognese painter Bartolomeo Passarotti (1529–1592). The painting shows Tiburzio's wife, Taddea Gaggi and his younger son, Arcangelo. I have the following most important analogues to the attribution and the date of the work: Tiburzio Passarotti's Self-Portrait in the Uffizi, Florence, and Bartolomeo Passarotti's Family Picture in Dresden. I would like to underline that the painting attributed to “Emilian painter, last quarter of the 16th century: Portrait of a Noble Family” found in a privat collection in Hungary was executed by Bartolomeo Passarotti by his own hand. My opinion is verified by the comparision of the relatively late works of Bartolomeo. This picture (1582–83) also represents the portraits of Taddea Gaggi and Arcangelo.

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After the revolution in 1956, the cultural policy in Hungary shifted to allow a new openness toward Western-European movements: consequently 1956–1967 became one of the most important transitional periods of Hungarian music history. Composers turned away from the tradition of the foregoing thirty years, determined by the influence of Bartók and Kodály, imitating rather the works of Schoenberg, Berg, Webern, Boulez, Nono, Lutosławski, Penderecki and Stockhausen. In this context the 78-year-old Zoltán Kodály’s Symphony, written in 1960–1961 for the Swiss Festival Orchestra and dedicated to the memory of Arturo Toscanini, was rejected by the young generation of composers and also Hungarian music critics, who turned themselves for the first time against the much-revered figure of authority. The Symphony’s emphasis on C major, its conventional forms, Brahms-allusions, pseudo self-citations and references to the 19th-century symphonic tradition were also received without comprehension in Western Europe. Kodály’s letters and interviews indicate that the composer suffered disappointment in this negative reception. Drawing on manuscript sources, Kodály’s statements and the Symphony itself, my study argues that the three movements can be read as caricature-like self-portraits of different phases of the composer’s life (the young, the mature and the old) and that Kodály identified himself with the symphonic genre and the C-major scale.

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The goal of my research is to put together from scattered mosaics an intellectual portrait of Ibn al-Muqaffa c , a complex and enigmatic thinker, and a key figure in the transmission of the late antique heritage to the Arabo-Islamic culture. This article is the third in a series. The first, “ La Lumière et les Ténèbres dans l’œuvre d’Ibn al-Muqaffa c ” (Light and Darkness in Ibn al-Muqaffa c ) was published in AOH Vol. 61 (3). In that article, I set out the rationalist and anti-Islamic ideas presented in works attributed to Ibn al-Muqaffa c . The second article, “On the authenticity of al-Adab al-ṣaġīr attributed to Ibn al-Muqaffa c and the titles of the Kitāb al-ādāb al-kabīr, al-Adab al-ṣaġīr, tal-Yatīma and the Polemic against Islam ” was published in AOH Vol. 62 (2). This third article complements the picture of the rationalist and anti-Islamic Ibn al-Muqaffa c that I have presented in the first article and shows another side of his attitude towards religion. According to the texts quoted here, the rationality of people is not enough to secure the peace of the individual soul, much less the peace of the state. The welfare of society requires a well functioning state whose cohesion is best ensured by religion.The introduction is a short outline of the correlation between Ibn al-Muqaffa c ’s social status and his attitude towards power, reason and religion. In the first section, I will quote and analyse some views attributed to him that reveal an unusual but coherent approach towards religion. The second section will present his ideas and reasoning that links reason, religion and power. The conclusion of this article will not end this series on Ibn al-Muqaffa c , but will be followed by the next article entitled: “A Self-portrait of a Wise Jackal; Ibn al-Muqaffa c ’s Heroes: the Sage and the Sovereign.”

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self-portrait of students in different formations in music education ” (A zenei kepzesben eltero formaban resztvevo tanulók csaladi hattere es enkepe). Equalities appear with high-school students in the field of parent’s educational level, and high

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