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In my paper I analyse the narrative of Livy about the Bacchanalia conspiracy. Our author, who is short with some events, dedicates twelve long chapters to this happening, that is, he regards it as important. In his report we can establish more different sources: the accounts of earlier historians, the decree of the senat (Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus) and rumours. In spite of his loyalty to the traditional Roman religion, his decription is reliable.

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Dolgozatomban Livius beszámolóját elemzem a Kr. e. 186-ban leleplezett és elfojtott Bacchanalia-összeesküvésről. Figyelmemet e téma iránt Livius leírásának terjedelmessége és mindenre kiterjedô részletessége keltette fel. Az a Livius, aki véres csatákat pár oldalon elintéz, a Bacchanalia-botránynak 12 hosszú fejezetet szentel mintegy 12 oldal terjedelemben. Az a Livius, akiről azt állítják a kutatók, hogy egy-egy esemény leírásakor általában egy-egy forrást követ, és a feliratokat másodkézbôl ismeri, itt bizonyíthatóan több forrásból építkezik, és egy fontos dokumentumra, a Senatusconsultum de Bacchanalibus-ra hivatkozik, idéz belőle, s a véletlen szerencse folytán előkerült e rendelet egy bronzba vésett példánya. Így kiderült, hogy Livius nem vaktában beszél, hanem olykor szó szerint idéz, olykor az eredeti megbízható parafrázisát adja. E részlet elemzése nemcsak arra ad választ, hogyan viszonyult ő, a történetíró a valláshoz, hanem arra is, hogyan viszonyult hozzá a római állam e botrány idején, Kr. e. 186-ban, s hogyan a 39. könyv írásakor, a Kr. e. tízes években.

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On the suggestion of Pollack Mihály Faculty of Engineering the Rector and the Senate of the University of Pécs have awarded the title ‘Doctor et Professor Honoris Causa’ to József Finta on the 15th October 2009. This paper is the edited version of the lecture given by József Finta before the award ceremony.

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After the battle of Thapsus that took place on 6 April 46 Caesar kept delaying his return to Rome for a long while, until 25 July — he stopped to stay on Sardinia — and this cannot be attributed fully to implementing measures and actions necessary in Africa since they could have been carried out by his new proconsul, C. Sallustius Crispus too. The triumph held owing to the victory in Africa — in which they carried around representations of the death of M. Petreius, M. Porcius Cato and Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica — must have further grated on the nerves of the aristocracy of Rome, because it was meant to symbolise Caesar’s victory both over Iuba and the senate. It was after that that Cicero broke his silence and delivered Pro Marcello in the senate, which was both oratio suasoria and gratiarum actio for the pardon granted to Marcellus, by which Caesar wanted to assure the senate of his benevolence and wanted to show off his power by his autocratic gesture. Pro Ligario delivered in 46 has been considered a classical example of deprecatio by both the antique and modern literature, and in historical terms it is not a less noteworthy work since from the period following the civil war Pro Marcello, having been delivered in early autumn of 46 in the senate, is Cicero’s first oration made on the Forum, that is, before the general public, in which praising Caesar’s clementia he seemingly legitimised dictatorship. First, we describe the historical background of the oratio and the process of the proceedings (I.); then, we examine the issue if the proceedings against Ligarius can be considered a real criminal trial. (II.) After the analysis of the genre of the speech, deprecatio (III.) we analyse the appearance of Caesar’s clementia in Pro Ligario. (IV.) Finally, we focus on the means of style of irony, and highlight an interesting element of the Caesar-Cicero relation and how the orator voices his conviction that he considers the dictator’s power and clementia illegitimate. (V.)

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In his paper the author examines the sources on the date of Emperor Decius’ death based on the altar of Bölcske erected on the 11th of June 251. The altar is dedicated pro salute of the new emperors Trebonianus Gallus and Hositilanus and mentions the Decii as divi. Based on the length of Decius’ reign mentioned in the written sources the date of Decius’ death cannot be calculated. As the consecration of the Decii had to happen after a senates consult in Rome, the date of the battle at Abrittus must be dated latest middle of May 251.

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It has been argued that during the reign of Roman emperors the crime of lèse-majesté was punishable by death, and the arbitrariness of its prosecution has been considered one of the negative aspects of this era. However, the debate on the origin, date and content of the law, which should have formed the frame for all trials, the lex Iulia maiestatis, has not been sufficiently concluded. The paper will attempt to prove that it was the aquae et ignis interdictio, i.e. non-voluntary exile, not death, that remained the poena legis during the Principate; death could also be inflicted, but not as the legal penalty. The possibilities of the cognitio extra ordinem, which spread from the beginning of the Principate, and the role of the Senate will be duly considered.

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La proibizione dei bacchanalia tra la Magna Grecia e l'Etruria

Il Senatus Consultum de Bacchanalibus di Tiriolo e il Trono delle Pantere di Bolsena

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors:
Vincenzo Elio Junior Macchione
and
Davide Mastroianni

Summary

In the Greek world, the celebrations of Dionysus were different: the Rural Dionysia and the City Dionysia, the Lenee, the Antestèrie, the Oscofòrie, the Ascalia and the Bacchanalia. During the Bacchanalia, women ran, danced and screamed in the woods, and fell prey to Dionysian inebriation. In 186 BC, the Roman Senate issued a decree that limited the cult of Bacchus Dionysus in Rome and in Italy, because of sexual abuses (see Livy, Ab Urbe condita 39. 8 – 39. 18). The diffusion of Bacchanalia was a risk for people and for the dignitas of Rome. In 1640 in Tiriolo, Calabria, during the excavation for the foundations of the so-called Palazzo Cicala, a bronze inscription and fragments of columns were found; the inscription had the original text of Senatus Consultum de Bacchanalibus with which, in 186 BC, the Roman Senate forbade the Bacchanalia. In Latium, during the excavation of the so-called Domus delle Pitture in Bolsena, directed by the École Française de Rome, between 1964 and 1982, a fragment of a throne's base and a cherub's leg were found in a layer of ashes in an underground room. Another 150 pieces of the throne, including ribbons and fragments of a panther head, were recovered in a specific spot of the room. Fragments, carefully restored and reassembled, compose an object called Trono delle Pantere of Bolsena, datable between the end of the 3rd century BC and the early years of the 2nd century BC. The left and rear sides are better preserved. The first represents a panther sitting on a throne with a cherub on his knees while it grabs at the ears of beast; the rear side represents a pattern with wings blocked by ribbons. The front side is completely destroyed. The throne has different sets of problems on its religious meaning and its decoration, where the Dionysiac theme is clear. The panther, the cherubs and the ribbons recall the Dionysus sphere, during which he was hidden inside a cave. Indeed, the underground room of Bolsena was appropriated to Bacchanalia. This paper intends to link Tiriolo and Bolsena, through the specific cases of two cities; in the first we have a proof of the enforcement of the law in 186 BC, and in the second we have an evidence of its application, with the destruction of a throne and of a Bacchic shrine.

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Cicero Catilina elleni első beszédének struktúrája

Havas László és Borzsák István professzorok emlékének ajánlom

Antik Tanulmányok
Author:
Tamás Adamik

A Catilina elleni első beszéd a Magyarországon is könnyen hozzáférhető Müller-féle összkiadásban 12 oldal terjedelmű; 13 fejezetre, illetve 33 szakaszra oszlik. Jelen előadásomban amellett érvelek, hogy az 1. fejezet, a bevezetés, Cicero reagálása az új retorikai szituációra, azaz arra, hogy Catilina nem távozott Rómából; ellenkezőleg, megjelent a senatusi ülésen. A 2. fejezet pedig az elbeszélés (narratio), a tényállás körvonalazása és a tétel (propositio), amely előkészíti a bizonyítást, az egész beszéd törzsanyagát. Cicero Catilina elleni első beszéde különleges, mert mindhárom szónoki beszédfajta tulajdonságait magában hordozza. Feltűnő sajátossága, hogy bevezetése is, elbeszélése is és érvelése is hat részből áll; e szigorú szerkezet indoka feltehetőleg a beszéd rögtönzött jellege.

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Magyarországon a felsőfokú, egyetemi szintű építészképzés több mint 120 éven keresztül a budapesti Műegyetemen történt. 1945-ig a képzésben a műszaki, technikai és a tervezőművészeti tárgyak, az utóbbiak némi többségével, egyensúlyban szerepeltek az oktatásban. 1947-től Magyarország szocialista átalakítása az oktatás meghódításával is elkezdődött. Szakmai tekintetben az építőipar modernizálása és a szocialista tömegtermelés a műszaki tantárgyak túltengését, továbbá új, rendszerhű tanárok és tantárgyaik beállítását eredményezte az Építészmérnöki Karon. Tantárgyi reformok sorozata után a hetvenes-nyolcvanas években az egységes képzésben 5–10% óraszámos eltérésekkel három-négy irányban — szerkesztő-technológus, építésztervező, városépítési és rövid ideig szervező irányban — szerezhettek a hallgatók szakirányú ismereteket. A budapesti építészdiploma sokoldalúsága jól bevált a hazai és nemzetközi alkalmazásban, ugyanakkor kritikát is kiváltott a szakma köreiben. A dolgozat a kari tanácsi jegyzőkönyvek, az órarendek és az évkönyvek adataira támaszkodva mutatja be az építészoktatás történetét az 1990-es újabb rendszerváltozásig.

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As Augustus returned to Rome in 13 BC, the Senate passed a constitutio to build in his honor a lasting altar of peace, the Ara Pacis Augustae, to signal with a major ceremony the new peace all over the Roman world, Gibbon’s Pax Romana. As we know from Ovid Fast. 1. 709–714, 3. 881–882, the Ara Pacis was the site of two annual sacrifices (on 30 Jan. and 30 March) to Pax, an innovation of the Augustan Age, for formerly Pax had been a minor goddess without a temple. The Augustan regime elevated a new form of Pax as a religious cult and made it acceptable to the Roman people, who had regarded Pax as the phenomenon of a foreign power too beaten down to resist Roman arms any longer and had no use for pacifism (in the modern sense), which would be seen only as cowardly in their dangerous world.

Augustus had started this process, perhaps not intentionally, back when he closed the Gates of Janus in 29. By bringing together Greco-Roman elements of Pax with Jupiter and Janus, he was able to forge a new religious cult to Pax Augusta that could appeal to the average Roman by its promise of prosperity and the absence of civil war. Foreign war was perfectly acceptable and not incompatible with this cult, but the emphasis was on domestic harmony and old traditional religious practices, even if the average listener could not understand some of these obligatory, archaic chants. For this reason, the third closing of the Gates of Janus very likely accompanied one of the Ara Pacis ceremonies.

Augustus also built on precedents from his divine father Julius, who had founded the towns Forum Iulii Pacatum (Fréjus, France) and Pax Iulia (Beja, Portugal) and issued Pax imagery on coinage to gain the moral high ground during the civil war. Augustus went one step further with larger sets of Pax coin issues to tell the people that he, not Antony, was trying to maintain peace when Cleopatra wanted war, and then a sequel after Actium that demonstrated his ability to prevail and restore order. The image of Pax Augusta evolved as it developed, but the epitome is the goddess we see on the East side of the Ara Pacis, surrounded by fertility and prosperity, in a state of security. Rome too would enjoy the same benefits.

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