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family of public figures which was well integrated into the administration of the Empire, he was far from being the only Greek in the Senate. During the reign of the Severi, half the senators were from the provinces, and among them more than half were

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In my paper I analyse the narrative of Livy about the Bacchanalia conspiracy. Our author, who is short with some events, dedicates twelve long chapters to this happening, that is, he regards it as important. In his report we can establish more different sources: the accounts of earlier historians, the decree of the senat (Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus) and rumours. In spite of his loyalty to the traditional Roman religion, his decription is reliable.

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subject of two significant achievements 6 in France, one of which was awarded by the Constitutional Council's thesis prize in 2013 and, the other, the Senate's first prize thesis in 2014. 7 Worse, this innovation appeared to many rather dangerous, even

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Dolgozatomban Livius beszámolóját elemzem a Kr. e. 186-ban leleplezett és elfojtott Bacchanalia-összeesküvésről. Figyelmemet e téma iránt Livius leírásának terjedelmessége és mindenre kiterjedô részletessége keltette fel. Az a Livius, aki véres csatákat pár oldalon elintéz, a Bacchanalia-botránynak 12 hosszú fejezetet szentel mintegy 12 oldal terjedelemben. Az a Livius, akiről azt állítják a kutatók, hogy egy-egy esemény leírásakor általában egy-egy forrást követ, és a feliratokat másodkézbôl ismeri, itt bizonyíthatóan több forrásból építkezik, és egy fontos dokumentumra, a Senatusconsultum de Bacchanalibus-ra hivatkozik, idéz belőle, s a véletlen szerencse folytán előkerült e rendelet egy bronzba vésett példánya. Így kiderült, hogy Livius nem vaktában beszél, hanem olykor szó szerint idéz, olykor az eredeti megbízható parafrázisát adja. E részlet elemzése nemcsak arra ad választ, hogyan viszonyult ő, a történetíró a valláshoz, hanem arra is, hogyan viszonyult hozzá a római állam e botrány idején, Kr. e. 186-ban, s hogyan a 39. könyv írásakor, a Kr. e. tízes években.

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In this paper I discuss Housman’s principle of textual criticism that apographs are of no importance in the establishment of a text, and suggest reasons why this should not be a universal rule, with reference to the text of Isaios. Housman was emulated in his notoriously acerbic criticism of other scholars by William Wyse, the major editor of Isaios, and I assess the contributions of three scholars who, exceptionally, met with Housman’s approval and made contributions to the text of Isaios.

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This paper discusses three passages in the text of Isaios (8. 35, 2. 28, 3. 37), where I judge that the text as preserved in the manuscripts is in need of emendation.

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This paper discusses four passages in the speeches of Isaios (6. 1, 7. 38, 2. 20, 11. 11), where I disagree with the text printed by Wyse. They are linked by the general theme of deletion.

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was saluted as imperator 21 times. Although the Senate decreed me additional triumphs, I set them aside. When I had performed the vows which I had undertaken in each war, I deposited on the Capitol the laurels which adorned my fasces. For successful

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needed manpower, but the Senate resolved for the duration of the war to refuse to recover any captive held by the enemy in order to persuade everyone (civilians, soldiers, and the even enemy) that the Romans had adopted a total war mentality to make no

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors:
Kate Bishop
,
Igor Filatotchev
, and
Tomasz Mickiewicz

Using a data set for the 162 largest Hungarian firms during the period of 1994-1999, this paper explores the determinants of equity shares held by both foreign investors and Hungarian corporations. Evidence is found for a post-privatisation evolution towards more homogeneous equity structures, where dominant categories of Hungarian and foreign owners aim at achieving controlling stakes. In addition, focusing on firm-level characteristics we find that exporting firms attract foreign owners who acquire controlling equity stakes. Similarly, firm-size measurements are positively associated with the presence of foreign investors. However, they are negatively associated with 100% foreign ownership, possibly because the marginal costs of acquiring additional equity are growing with the size of the assets. The results are interpreted within the framework of the existing theory. In particular, following Demsetz and Lehn (1985) and Demsetz and Villalonga (2001) we argue that equity should not be treated as an exogenous variable. As for specific determinants of equity levels, we focus on informational asymmetries and (unobserved) ownership-specific characteristics of foreign investors and Hungarian investors.

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