mitochondrial dysfunction ( 26 , 52 , 56 ).
Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) was first isolated as a hepatocyte aging factor in 1992. The expression of SMP30 was shown to decline with age. It is present in a variety of tissues, such as the brain
Authors:J.W Guo, Q. Li, W.Q. Chen, X. Li, L.Q. Li, T.G. Liu, Z.L. Ren, and P.G. Luo
Leaf senescence is a notably important trait that limits the yield and biomass accumulation of agronomic crops. Therefore, determining the chromosomal position of the expression sequence tags (ESTs) that are associated with leaf senescence is notably interesting in the manipulation of leaf senescence for crop improvement. A total of 32 ESTs that were previously identified during the delaying leaf senescence stage in the stay-green wheat cultivar CN17 were mapped to 42 chromosomes, a chloroplast, a mitochondrion, and a ribosome using in silico mapping. Then, we developed 19 pairs of primers based on these sequences and used them to determine the polymorphisms between the stay-green cultivars (CN12, CN17, and CN18) and the control cultivar MY11. Among the 19 pairs of primers, 5 pairs produced polymorphisms between the stay-green cultivar and the non-stay-green control. Further studies of Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomics show that JK738991 is mapped to 3B, JK738983 is mapped to 5D, and JK738989 is mapped to 2A, 4A, and 3D. The other two ESTs, JK738994 and JK739003, were not assigned to a chromosome using the Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomics, which indicates that these ESTs may be derived from rye DNA in the wide cross. In particular, the ESTs that produce polymorphisms are notably useful in identifying the stay-green cultivar using molecular marker-assisted selection. The results also suggest that the in silico mapping data, even from a comparison genomic analysis based on the homogeneous comparison, are useful at some points, but the data were not always reliable, which requires further investigation using experimental methods.
Authors:A Yabluchanskiy, Z Ungvari, A Csiszar, and S Tarantini
of aging, such as heightened state of inflammation, increased oxidative stress, cellular senescence, mitochondrial dysregulation and cellular energetic dysfunction, impaired proteostasis, endocrine dysfunction, and reduced cellular and organismal
Authors:O. Sedlář, J. Balík, J. Černý, L. Peklová, and K. Kubešová
The aim of this study was to observe the influence of the amount of precipitation during the grain filling period on nitrogen uptake and grain yield of spring barley fertilized by ammonium injection. Conventional nitrogen fertilization before sowing and CULTAN (Controlled Uptake Long Term Ammonium Nutrition) injection fertilization were compared during a 5-year small-plot field experiment under the conditions of Central Europe. In contrast to conventional nitrogen fertilization, with the CULTAN treatment there was observed no significantly negative effect of below-average precipitation during the grain filling period on post-heading (BBCH 51) nitrogen uptake from the soil with applications of 80 and 130 kg N.ha−1, grain yield, nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUpE) and thousand-grain weight with an application of 80 kg N.ha−1, nor there was a significantly positive effect on the contribution of nitrogen translocation to total nitrogen in the grain with an application of 130 kg N.ha−1. CULTANtreated plants achieved a significantly higher harvest index than conventionally treated plants with an application of 80 kg N.ha−1. Below average precipitation during the grain filling period had a significantly negative effect on nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) with both treatments. Using the CULTAN treatment leads to significantly lower flag leaf area compared to conventional treatment with an application of 80 kg N.ha−1. The application of 130 kg N.ha−1 brings no benefits to spring barley production.