Authors:W. Qi, X. Zhou, M. Ma, J. M. H. Knops, W. Li, and G. Du
Despite a long history of alpine meadows studies, uncertainty remains about the importance of environmental factors in structuring their assembly. We examined the functional and phylogenetic structure of 170 alpine Tibetan meadow communities in relation to elevation, soil moisture and shade. Functional community structure was estimated with both communityweighted mean (CWM) trait values for specific leaf area (SLA), plant height and seed mass and functional diversity (Rao’s quadratic index) for their traits individually and in combination (multivariate functional diversity). We found that shade induced by woody plants significantly increased the phylogenetic diversity and functional diversity of SLA of co-occurring species, suggesting that woody plants behave as “ecosystem engineers” creating a different environment that allows the existence of shade tolerant species and thereby facilitates the coexistence of plant species with different light resource acquisition strategies. We also found evidence for a clear decrease in phylogenetic diversity, CWM and functional diversity related to plant height in the two extreme, both the dry and wet, soil moisture conditions. This indicates that both drought and excess moisture may act as environmental filters selecting species with close phylogenetic relationships and similar height. Moreover, we detected significant decreases in both CWM and functional diversity for seed mass along elevational gradients, suggesting that low net primary productivity (NPP) limits seed size. Finally, because of different individual trait responses to environmental factors, the multivariate functional diversity did not change across environmental gradients. This lack of multivariate response supports the hypothesis that multiple processes, such as environmental filtering, competition and facilitation, may operate simultaneously and exert opposing effects on community assembly along different niche (e.g., water use, light acquisition) axes, resulting in no overall functional community structure change. This contrast between individual and multivariate trait patterns highlights the importance of examining individual traits linked with different ecological processes to better understand the mechanisms of community assembly.
A survey of Vergil’s uses of the word umbra and comparisons with its uses in other Roman poets reveals that Vergil was the first poet to deploy umbra, previously neutral or negative in connotation, with positive associations, and that he may have been the first to coin it as meaning ‘ghost’. Unlike many other poets, Vergil exploits the multivalent potential of umbra, requiring readers to interpret his usage. The fact that all of Vergil’s varied uses of umbra appear in the Culex suggests that it was written by an astute follower who was perceptive to the poet’s nuanced usage of the term.
for the shade-tolerant species Acer saccharum. Plant, Cell Environ. 20:845-866.
A model separating leaf structural and physiological effects on carbon gain along light gradients for the shade-tolerant specie
Authors:Erzsébet Szőllősi, V. Oláh, P. Kanalas, J. Kis, A. Fenyvesi, and Ilona Mészáros
Anderson, J. M., Osmond, C. B. (1987) Shade-sun response: compromises between acclimation and photoinhibition. In: Kyle, D. J., Osmond, C. B., Arntzen, C. J. (eds) Photoinhibition . Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 1
Birner, A. and Bohlander, F. (2004):Mine development of horse chestnut leaf-miner (
) on leafs exposed to sunlight or shade. 1st International Cameraria Symposium, Prague (24–27 March 2004) 5 p
Authors:F. Zhang, J. Li, X.L. Wang, W. Mao, H. Zhang, J. Guo, and J.W. Li
An allometric analysis of biomass and N mass allocation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under non-shaded (100% of full sunlight) and shaded (30% of full sunlight) treatments were conducted. The allometric slopes and the intercepts were estimated using standardized major axis regression. Results indicated that biomass was preferentially allocated to stems during plant ontogeny, and leaves and roots were isometric when rice seedlings were not shaded. Under shade, however, more biomass was allocated to leaves and stems. N mass allocation was also altered by shading in that more N mass was allocated to the aerial shoots, and plants accumulated less N mass when shaded. Our study revealed that both biomass and N mass were in accordance with the optimal partitioning theory.
Authors:Viktória Zsom-Muha, Lien Le Phuong Nguyen, László Baranyai, Géza Hitka, Zsuzsanna Horváth-Mezőfi, Gergő Szabó, and Tamás Zsom
−2 ) were determined by a table-top firmness measuring device called AWETA AFS Desktop System (AWETA AFS DTF V0.0.0.105, The Netherlands). Potatoes were measured at their two opposite sides (sunny and shaded side) and were kept by their sunny side
The key to the enigma of the authorship of V. Nabokov’s novel “Pale Fire” lies in the epigraph to the novel: it formulates the algorism of the “reverse move” which is what organizes the narrative structure of the text. Kinbot is Shade’s black shadow; Shade is the glowing shadow of the Almighty also as of the only author of the novel’s macro text – V. Nabokov.